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【2015年6月英语四级必备语法】非谓语动词

【2015年6月英语四级必备语法】非谓语动词语法是学习英语的关键,掌握了词汇还得会将词汇组建在句子成份里,而语法就相当于语言的骨架,由此可见语法的重要性,距离2015年6月英语四六级考试还有两个多月的时间,小编整理了一些四级语法知识供大家参考学习,希望大家加紧复习步伐哦!

不定式和动名词作主语的区别

(1)动名词作主语时,通常用以表示一件已知的事或经验。

不定式短语通常用来表示一件未完成的事或目的。

Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。(经验)

Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在高峰时刻开车令人厌烦。(经验)

(2)不定式做主语,一般用it当形式主语,把作主语的不定式短语后置。

It took me only five minutes to finish the job.

不定式和动名词作宾语的区别

begin开始determine决定manage设法agree同意love 喜欢fail不能plan计划

(2)有少数动词只能用动名词作宾语

acknowledge承认,admit 承认dislike不喜欢,讨厌advocate:提倡,主张complete

完成

appreciate 感激,欣赏avoid避免enjoy享有,喜爱delay延迟escape逃跑,逃避deny 否认

consider 考虑fancy幻想,爱好mind 介意miss错过finish完成,结束不得resist抵抗,阻止imagine设想postpone延迟,延期practise 实行,实践suggest建议prevent阻止keep保持quit放弃停止loathe非常讨厌,厌恶recall回想

例如:I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

我很感激两年前给我出国学习的机会。

(3)有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别

1)forget to do 忘记要去做某事(此事未做)

forget doing忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生)

2)stop to do 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事

stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事

3)remember to do 记住去做某事(未做)

remember doing记得做过某事(已做)

4) regret to do对要做的事遗憾

regret doing对做过的事遗憾、后悔

5)try to do努力、企图做某事

try doing试验、试一试某种办法

6) mean to do打算,有意要…

mean doing意味着

7)need, want, deserve +动名词表被动意义;+不定式被动表示“要(修、清理等)”意思。

Don't you remember seeing the man before?你不记得以前见过那个人吗?

You must remember to leave tomorrow.你可要记着是明天动身。

I regret to have to do this,but I have no choice.我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没办法。

You must try to be more careful.你可要多加小心。

Let's try doing the work some other way.让我们试一试用另外一种办法来做这工作。

不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别

(1)不定式作表语

1)不定式作表语一般表示具体动作,特别是表示将来的动作。

To do two things at a time is to do neither.一次做两件事等于未做。

What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建议是立刻开始干。

2)如果主语是不定式(表示条件),表语也是不定式(表示结果)。

To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。

(2)动名词作表语:动名词作表语,表示抽象的一般性的行为。

Our work is serving the people.我们的工作是为人民服务。

His hobby is collecting stamps.他的爱好是集邮。

(3)分词作表语

分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是过去分词做表语,这两者区别是考试中经常考到的地方。

interesting使人感到高兴--interested感到高兴的

exciting令人激动的--excited感到激动的

puzzling令人费解的--puzzled感到费解的

satisfying令人满意的---satisfied感到满意的

旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳。Travelling is interesting but tiring.

The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要学生学得太多,他们会感到糊涂的。

The argument is very convincing.他的论点很令人信服。

They were very excited at the news.听到这个消息,他们非常激动。

不定式、现在分词和过去分词作定语的区别

The child standing over there is my brother.站在那儿的男孩子是我弟弟。

The room facing south is our classroom.朝南的房间是我们的教室。

The book writen by professor Smith is very popular in China now. 由史密斯教授写的那本书在中国非常受欢迎

I have find my watch lost.

不定式和分词作状语的区别

(1)现在分词与过去分词作状语的区别。

1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是主动关系。

Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help.

由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮忙。

2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间的关系是被动关系。

Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.

非谓语动词常考的其它结构

(1)疑问词+不定式结构

疑问词who,what,which,when,where和how后加不定式可构成一种特殊的不定式短语。它在句中可以用作主语、宾语、表语和双重宾语。

When to start has not been decided.何时动身尚未决定。(主语)

I don't know what to do.我不知道该怎么办。(宾语)

The difficulty was how to cross the river.困难在于如何过河。(表语)

I can tell you where to get this book.我可以告诉你哪里可以买到此书。(双重宾语)

(2)不带to的不定式

1)在表示生理感觉的动词后的不定式不带to。

这类词有:feel 觉得observe 注意到,看到overhear听到watch注视listen to听perceive察觉,感知notice注意see看见look at看hear听

On seeing the young child fell into the lake,Eric sprang to his feet,and went on the rescue.

2)另一类是某些使役动词,如make, let,have等。

Let him do it.让他做吧。

I would have you know that I am ill.我想让你知道我病了。

①上述感觉动词与使役动词转换为被动结构时.其后的不定式一般需带to,

He was seen to come. The boy was made to go to bed early.

3)在do nothing/anything/everything but(except)结构中。

例如:Last night I did nothing but watch TV.昨天晚上,我除了看电视别的什么也没有干。

但是,如果谓语动词不是“do nothing,anything,everything”,那么but(except)所跟的不定式则仍须带。

The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.医生除了让他戒烟,其它什么都没有说。

There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.除了保持沉默以外,他们没有别的办法。

非谓语动词中的有关句型

(1)动名词作主语的句型

1)It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...)等名词+doing sth. It is no use crying.哭没有用。

It is no good objecting.反对也没有用。

It is a great fun playing football.打篮球很有趣。

2) It is + useless (nice, good,interesting, expensive等形容词)+ doing sth.

It is useless speaking.光说没用。

It is nice seeing you again.真高兴又遇到了你。

It is good playing chess after supper.晚饭后弈棋挺好。