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新编简明英语语言学学习重点总结

课本外练习资料中的考点内容

一、定义

1.tone

Tone are pitch variations, which are caused by the differing rates of vibration of the vocal cords. Tone is a suprasegmental feature.

2.Negative transfer

Negative transfer occurs when the frist language pattern is different from the counterpart pattern of the target language. it’s commonly known as interference because it would lead to difficulties or errors in second language learning.

3.hapology

It refers to the loss of one of two phonetically similar syllables in sequence,

For example, the old English word ”engla-land”(the land of Angles)came to be pronounced “England” through the assimilation of ”la-la” sounds.

4.relational opposites

Pairs of words that exhibit the reversal of a relationship between the two items are called relational opposites.

5.语言判定Linguistic determinism

It refers to the fact that all higher levels of thinking are dependent on langauge, to put it more bluntly, language determines thought.

6.语调intonation

When pitch, stress and sound length are tied to the sentence rather than the wordin isolation, they are collectively known as intonation.

There are 4 types of intonation:

The falling tone, the rising tone, the fall-rise tone and the rise-fall tone.

7.深层结构Deep structure

It’s an abstract leve l representing the basis for the meaning of a sentence. it consists of a structure generated by phrase structure rules and contains lexical items from the lexcion, but no transformations have yet applied to it. 8.连字符Diacritics

Diacritics are a set of symbols that added to the letter symbols to make finer distinctions than the letters alone make possible. Diacritics are only used in narrow transcription.

For example, in broad transcription, the symbol [l] is used for the sound[l ]in words like leaf [li;f],feel[fi;l].

9.历史和比较语言学Historical and comparative linguistics

It’s a study of ongoing changes that languages have undergone.

It’s historical because it deals with the historical development of individual languages.

It’s comparative in the sense that it aims at deve loping and elucidating the genetic relationships that exist between and among languages, classifying related languages into language families and reconstructing their ancestral languages.

10.正向转移Positive transfer

Transfer can be positive or negative,. Presumably, positive transfer occurs when a first language pattern is identical with, or similar to, a target language.

例如,French people find no difficulty in learning the English word ”table” cos it has the same meaning as the

French word” table”.

11.反向转移Negative transfer

Negative transfer occurs when an L1 pattern is different from the counterpart pattern of the target language.反向转移即人们常说的干扰

干扰Interference

The effect of one’s first language knowledge on the learning of a second language.

12.人际交流Intrapersonal communication

It refers to one of the two major functions that language serves. as a means of intrapersonal communication, language facilitates thinking, speech behavior and action for the individual.

二、问答题

1.why is the word order in Modern English more rigid than that in Old English?

Because in Modern English there are no longer the elaborate morphological system used in Old English, such as the case marking system, to help to indicate grammatical relations. therefore, it is no longer possible to identify the functional roles of nouns by their inflectional endings.

The functional notions of subject and object have to be indicated largely by the syntactic position of nouns in a linear order, resulting in a system with stricter constraints on word order.

2.what features of language do you think should be included in a good, comprehensive definition of language?

Language is a rule-governed system.

Language is basically vocal.

Language is arbitrary.

Language is used for human communication.

3.what’s Broca’s area and what will happen if any damage is inflicted upon it?

⑴In 1861, a French surgeon and anatomist Paul Broca discovered that somewhere in the frontal lobe in the left cerebral hemisphere had something to do with speech difficulty. this place is known as Broca’s area.

⑵Any damage to sites in the left cerebral he misphere will result in a patient’s language disorder, whereas destruction of corresponding sites in the right hemisphere leave linguistic capacities intact.

⑶Therefore if any damage is inflicted upon this area, it will result in word finding difficulties and problems with syntax.

4.sate briefly your understanding of the differences between the term acquisition and the term learning in language acquisition study?

⑴The distinction between acquisition and learning was proposed by the American SLA scholar Stephen Krashen on the assumption that they are different processes.

⑵Acquisition refers to the gradual and subconscious development of ability in the first language by using it naturally in daily communicative situations.

⑶Learning is defined as a conscious process of accumulating knowledge of a second language usually obtained in school settings.

⑷It’s recognized that children acquired their native language without explicit learning, which a second language is more commonly learned but to some degree may also be acquired, depending on the environmental setting and the input received by the L2learner.

⑸A rule can be learned before it is internalized(i.e. acquired),but having learned a rule does not necessarily preclude having to acquire it later.

5.suprasegmental features? how does it function in conveying meaning?

⑴ the phonological features that occur above the sound segmental level are called suprasegmental features.

⑵the major suprasegmental features of English includes word stress, sentence stress and intonation.

⑶ The suprasegmental features distinguish meaning.

超切分特征是在语音切分成分层面之上的音系特征。

主要包括单词重音、语句重音和语调。

超切分特征区分意义。

6.what is the nature of language change in historical linguistics?

语言的本质在历史语言学中的含义?

⑴language change is inevitable.

⑵as a general rule, language change is universal, continuous,to a considerable degree, regular and systematic.

⑶language change is extensive, taking place in virtually all aspects of the grammar—in phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon and semantics.

⑷when language change is in progress, phonemes, morphemes, words, and grammatical rules may be borrowed, added, lost, or altered, and meanwhile, the meaning of individual lexical items or strings of words may expand ,narrow,or shift.

7.What’s the difference between the instrumental motivation and the integrative motivation of the learner’s?工具性与介入性学习动机的不同点?

⑴usually, adults are motivated to learn a second language because of a communicative need, they may learn a second language in order to use it functionally when they intend to use it as an instrument for the purpose.

⑵in certain situations an integrative motivation may be more powerful in facilitations may count for more.

⑶when the target language functions as a foreign language ,the learner is likely to benefit from an integrative motivation;

⑷but when the target language functions as a second language, an instrumental motivation is more effective.

8.词素的类别和使用How many morphemes are there in the English language? state what they are and illustrate how they work?

⑴there are two: free and bound morphemes.

⑵free morphemes are independent units of meaning and can be used freely all by themselves.

⑶bound morphemes are those that cant be used independently but have to combined with other morphemes.

⑷either free or bound, to form a word, it includes 2types:

A root is often seen as part of a word,it can never stand by itself although it bears clear, definite meaning, it must be combined with another root or an affix to form a word.

⑸Affixes are morphemes that are added to an already existing morpheme to form a new word while changing its meaning and grammatical relations. it consists of both inflectional and derivational affixes,

9.语言的两种功能two functions of language?

Two major functions are interpersonal and intrapersonal communication.

人际交流和自我交流

⑴language functions as a means of interpersonal communication when language users use it to convey information, thoughts and feelings from one person to another or to control each other’s behavior.

⑵ it functions as a means of intrapersonal communication when it is used as a means of facilitate thinking, speech behavior and action for the individual.

10.为什么说结构树形图比线形图可更好的说明句子的层次性?why do we say tree diagrams are more advantageous and informative than linear structure in analyzing the constituent relationship among linguistic elements?

⑴in addition to revealing a linear order, a constituent structure tree has a hierarchical structure that groups words

into structural constituents and shows the syntactic category of each structural constituent, and consequently is believed to most truthfully illustrate the constituent relationship among linguistic elements.

线形结构无法解释或说明有歧义的句子。

⑵for example, th e phrase ”the old men and women” may have two interpretation. The adject ”old” may modify the noun ”men ”,or the “women”. or both. linear order analysis cannot tell this difference, so it’s ambiguous. the constituent of tree diagrams analysis can make this difference clear.

11.音素、音位、音位变体的定义及关系Explain with examples 3notions of phone, phoneme and allophone, how they are related.

⑴A phone is a speech sound, it is a phonetic unit. any sound we hear in the course of communication is a phone, such as [ u:],[ l ];

⑵A phoneme is a phonological unit, it’s not a concrete sound but an abstract notion, it’s a collection of features. it can be realized as different phones in different phonetic contexts. Such as ,the phoneme[ l ] can be realized as a clear[ l ] or a dark [ l ],depending on where it occurs in a sound combination.

⑶The actually phonetic realization of a phoneme are called its allophones, allophones are the actual phones we hear in linguistic communication.