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专升本英语语法归纳与练习试题及答案



(一)情态动词

一 情态动辞书此刻完成式的用法

情态动词此刻完成式首要有两个功能:暗示已经发生的情形和暗示虚拟语气。在这两个方面must/mustnt,;can/cannt;need/neednt;may/maynt;might/mightnt;should/shouldnt;

ougtht等情态动词+完成式暗示的意思是有必然区此外

1.暗示已经发生的情形。

1)must have+曩昔分词,暗示对已发生情形的必定猜测,译为“8饕祆)必然……”。如:

My pain apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically:“ Are you feeling all right?”

[A] must be [B] had been [C] must have been [D] had to be

(谜底为C)

2)cant / couldnt have+曩昔分词,暗示对已发生情形的否认猜测,译为“8饕祆)必然没……”。如:

Mary my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.

[A] couldnt have received [B] ought to have received

[C] has received [D] shouldnt have received

(谜底为A)

3)may / might have +曩昔分词,暗示对已发生的工作做不必定、可能性很小的猜测,或事实上到净发生,译为“也许……”。如:

At Florida Powers Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive water may have been unknowingly caused by an electrician.

2.暗示虚拟语气。

1) neednt have + 曩昔分词,暗示做了不必做的事,相当于“didnt need to do”,译为“其实没需要……”。如:

You neednt have come over yourself.

As it turned out to be a small house party, we so formally.

[A] neednt dress up [B]did not need have dressed up

[C] did not need dress up [D] neednt have dressed up

(没有需要穿的那么正式,浮现是措辞者的建议,现实结不美观是否真的穿的很正式没有确定,谜底为D)

2)should have +曩昔分词,暗示应该做某事但现实上未做,译为“本应该……”should not + have曩昔分词暗示本不应该做某事但现实上做了,译为“本不应该……”。如:

I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefully.

我本滥暌功该事先当真地把每件工作规划的很好,但现实上作者仍是没针砭划好,以至工作没有完成。

3) ought to have +曩昔分词,暗示动作按理该发生了,但现实上未发生,译为“该……”,与should 的完成式寄义兵似。如:

The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke .

4) could have +曩昔分词,暗示曩昔原本可以做但却未做,译为“完全可以……”。这点与ought/should/ have +曩昔分词用法相似。如:



What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully.

5) may/ might have +曩昔分词,暗示曩昔可以做但现实未做,译为“(那样)也许会……”。如:

It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in the introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers.

二 几个情态动词常考的句型:

1)。may/might (just) as well “不妨,最好”,与had better四周;

Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train.

既然航班已经打消了,你不妨乘火车吧。相当于you had better go by train.

2) .cannot / cant…too …“越……越好,怎么也不外分”。注重这个句型的变体cannot…over…。如:

You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.驾车时辰,越小心越好。

The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be over emphasized .

3) .usednt 或didt use to 为used to (do) 的否认式。

4)。should 除了“应该”一层意思窃噩考研纲要还划定要把握其“竟然”的意思。如:I didnt expect that he should have behaved like that. 我无法想象他竟然这样做。

三 情态动词被动关系的自动表达法

1. want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以暗示被动意义。

Your hair wants cutting

The book is worth reading

The floor requires washing.

2.need既可以用need to be done 也可以使用need doing ,两种形式都表达被动的意义

The house needs painting= the house needs to be painted.

The watch needed repairing= the watch needed to be repaired.

(二)形容词、副词及斗劲级第一流

一 形容辞书润色与位置

一般来说,年夜构词法角度来看,后缀“ly”往往是副词,但有的以“ly结尾的词是形容词而不是副词,这点要注重;形容词一般可以在句子中做定语,表语等成份,但有些形容词在句子中只能做表语和只能做前置定语;这些形容词在润色时辰有必然的非凡性要引起巨匠的注重,下面做了一下归纳:

1 以-ly结尾的是形容词而不是副词:

costly 昂贵的 lonely 孤傲的

deadly 死一般的 lively 活跃的

friendly 友好的 silly 傻气的

kindly 热心肠的 likely 可能的

leisurely 落拓的 ugly 长得丑的

brotherly 兄弟般的 monthly 每月的

earthly 红尘的

2 只作以“a”开首的良多形容词只能做表语:

afraid 害怕的 alike 相象的

awake 醒着的 alone 零丁的,惟一的

alive 在世的

ashamed 羞愧的

asleep 睡着的 aware 意识到的、察觉到的

well 健康的 content 对劲的

unable 无能的

3 只作前置定语的形容词

earthen 土壤做的,年夜地的 daily 每日的 latter 后面的

golden 哨子般的 weekly 每周的 inner 琅缦沔的

silken 丝一般的 monthly 每月的 outer 外面的

wooden 木制的 yearly 每年的 elder 年长的

woolen 毛织的 former 前任的 mere 仅,只不外

only 惟一的 sheer 纯粹的 very 刚好的

little 小的 live 活的

4.下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词,注重用做系动词时,要求形容词做表语:

remain keep become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look.

如:All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer has great difficulty when it comes to specifics.

二 形容词与副辞书斗劲级与第一流

1. 考斗劲级时,考生应把握:

1)形容词和副词斗劲级的形式是否和斗劲连词对应呈现,即是否合适原级斗劲及斗劲级的结构。如:

Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often , or better than an actual performance.

[A]as good as [B]as good [C]good [D]good as

在这里as good as 斗劲连词与better than斗劲连词同时呈现时辰,不能省略任何一个介词。谜底为A

On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are those with little ambition.

2)斗劲的成分是否属于同类事物或同类概念,既是说斗劲要具有可比性。如:

The number of registered participants in this years marathon was half .

[A] of last years [B]those of last years

[C]of those of last year [D] that of last years

(前后对比的应该是今年和去年注册加入的人数“the number of”故庖代它的应该是单数指示代词“that”,而不能选择B,those是指代participants,不是同类对比,谜底为D.

Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of dickens far more exciting than Thackerays.

3)斗劲级与倍数词关系及其位置

原级结构中可插入表达倍数的词,暗示为“为…。若干倍”,当与有暗示倍数斗劲的词在一路时辰等,他们的位置是,倍数词+as…as…,或倍数词+more…than…,但again一般放在原级词之后,即 “as+原级+again+as”。如:

Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills people each year than automobile accident

s.

[A] seven more times [B] seven times more

[C] over seven times [D] seven times

(谜底为B)

“Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting?”“No, I would gladly have paid for it.”

[A] twice so much [B] twice as much

[C] as much twice [D] so much twice

(谜底为B)

My uncle is as old again as I am

4)下列词和短语不用斗劲级形式却暗示斗劲概念:

inferior, minor, senior, prior, prefer to, superior, major, junior, preferable, differ from, compared with, in comparison with, different from, rather than. 如:

Their watch is to all the other watches on the market.

[A] superior [B] advantageous [C] super [D] beneficial

(谜底为A)

Prior to his departure, he addressed a letter to his daughter. (1986年考研题)

5)“斗劲级+and +斗劲级”或“more and more/less and less +原级”以及“ever, steadily, daily等副词+斗劲级”结构暗示“越来越……”的意思,与这类结构搭配的常用动词有grow, get ,become等。前面两种情形更多地呈此刻进行时态中,注重的是这三种情形指导的斗劲级后面都不需要用than.如:

Things are getting worse and worse.

As I spoke to him he became less and less angry.

Her health was becoming daily worse

The road got ever worse until there was no road at all = the road got worse and worse.

6)斗劲级前面可以用even, still, yet ,all the (more)等润色语用以增强语气,暗示“加倍”的意思。如

Today it is even colder than yesterday

I have yet more exciting news for you

7)有关斗劲级的非凡句型:

A): not so much…as…与其说……不如说……

The chief reason for the population growth isnt so much a rise in birth rates a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.

[A] and [B] as [C]but [D] or

进口增添的首要原因与其说是因为出生率的提高,还不如说是因为医疗的前进带来的衰亡率下降的结不美观。谜底为B

B) no/not any more…than…两者一样都不……

The heart is intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.

[A] not so [B]not much [C]much more [D] no more

(心脏和胃两者都不具有智力,他们都受年夜脑节制。谜底为D)

There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, they can limit how much water you drink.

[A] much more than [B] no more than

[C] no less than [D] any more than

(谜底为D)

C)no/not any less…than…两者一样,都……注重根基上与no/not any more…than意思相反

She is no less

beautiful than her sister.她和她姐姐一样标致

D)just as… so… 正如……, ……也……(用倒装结构)

Just as the soil is a part of the earth, the atmosphere.

[A] as it is [B] the same is [C] so is [D] and so is

(谜底为C)

2.第一流形式应注重的问题:

1)第一流斗劲规模用介词in, over, of, among.

in, (all) over用于在某一规模内的斗劲,如:in China, all over the world.

of, among用于在统一群体内同类事物的斗劲,如:among the teachers, of the four dresses.

注重:among…相当于one of …,不说among all…。这一点考生应与汉语表达区别开来

如:

all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest wavelength.

[A] Among [B] Of [C]For [D]To 谜底为[B]

2)斗劲级形式暗示第一流意义时,斗劲对象典型围应用:

any other +单数名词

the other +复数名词

the others

anyone/anything else

上述词是用业将斗劲级结构改酿成第一流意义的关头词语,切不成漏失踪,尤其是other,否则会造成逻辑杂乱的错误。如不能说:John runs faster than anyone.注重与汉语表达的分歧。

3)most可以用来润色形容词或副词,意思相当于very,用法区分单复数,但不能用定冠词the,如:a most interesting book, most expensive restaurants, 要注重与 “the +形容词第一流+of + 名词”的结构暗示的第一流的区别,如:

He spoke in the warmest of voices

They have been most kind to me

Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country.

Chinese is the most difficult of language

Chinese is a most difficult language

三 不用斗劲级和第一流的形容词:

1)暗示颜色的有:white, black

2)暗示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形),level

3)暗示性质和特征的有:atomic, economic, scientific, sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen, silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy

4)暗示状况作表语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike

5)暗示时刻、空间和方位的有:daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward, backward, east, west, south, north, left, right, final

6)暗示极限、主次、品级的有:maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief minor, superior, inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite

7)含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete.

四 平行结构与斗劲级

平行结构良多情形下是由形容词或副辞书

斗劲级或者暗含斗劲意味的连词指导的。如:

The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes.

年夜年夜都情形下平行结构都是具有必然的斗劲寄义的,有的是递进对比not only…but (also);prefer…to…;rather than有的是同类对比:and ;but;or;both… and…;either…or…; neither…nor………

平行结构测试时辰注重以下几点:

1.注重斗劲结构中对角力计较的内容在语法形式上是否不异。如:

It is better to die ones feet than .

[A]living on ones knees [B]live on ones knees

[C]on ones knees [D]to live on ones knees

(谜底为D)

Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.

2.其他具有并列或斗劲意义的短语也可指导平行结构。

1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上毗连两个语法形式不异的成分。如:

We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style in a personal style.

[A]rather than [B]other than [C]better than [D]less than

谜底为A

For the new country to survive, for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required.

[A] to name a few [B]let alone [C]not to speak [D]lets say

(谜底为B)

2)如不美观平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词不异,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。如:

At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.

(三)代词及其指代一致

一 代辞书指代

1.that的指代浸染

that指代不成数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用those),后面凡是跟有润色语,如呈此刻斗劲结构中的that of.如

Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.这里that指代前面的the role.

No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.

2.one的指代浸染

one指代带不定冠辞书单数可数名词,复数为ones.the one指代带定冠辞书单数可数名词。如:

A good writer is who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.

[A] that [B]he [C]one [D]this

谜底为[C]

3.do的替代浸染。

do庖代动词,注重数和时态的转变。如:

For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the public believe that it does.

二 代词指代一致问题

代词指代一致是指指代的名词在性

、数、格上是否一致,或者所照应的名词词组在某些方面连结一致。

Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease form its effect.

这里he指代前面的person.

It was during the 1920s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.

这里its指代前面的两人的friendship.

Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me.

这里me必需用宾格形式。

代词指代一致必需注重以下几个原则和纪律:

1.临近和接近原则

由either … or, neither…nor, not only…but (also)毗连先行词时辰,如不美观两个先行词在数和性上连结一致,就用其响应的一向的人称代词;如不美观两个先行词在数或性上纷歧致,人称代词一般与临近的先行词在数和性上连结一致。

Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her.

Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination

If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink