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2016年全国高考英语优化习题集 (1)

2016年全国高考英语优化习题集(1)

(建议用时:30分钟)

Ⅰ.阅读理解

(2015·呼和浩特第一次调研)Many people may be surprised by the number of chemicals that they are exposed to through everyday household products.

In a study 25 women had their homes and bodies tested for 89 environmental pollutants—including pesticides(杀虫剂) and chemicals found in plastics and cleaning products. On average 20 chemicals were found on their bodies or in their homes.

Much is unknown about the possible health effects of chemicals in everyday household products. But certain chemicals—like phthalates (邻苯二甲酸盐) found in plastics—have been linked to potential health risks, including higher risks of certain cancers, though the evidence mainly comes from research on lab animals. Other household chemicals are known to harm the skin, eyes and airways—and may worsen asthma(哮喘). Many more chemicals found remain untested.

Chemicals likely come from a range of sources, so it is not always clear how to reduce people’s exposure, according to Dr Rebecca Altman, the lead researcher on the new study.

In the original study, she noted, women were given advice based on the particular chemicals they were exposed to—such as using fragrance, free washing liquid and personal-care products.

For the current study, Altman and her colleagues interviewed two dozen women who’d taken part in the previous study to see how they would react to information about their household chemical exposures. They found that the women were generally surprised at the range of chemicals found in their homes and bodies. They were also surprised that even some banned things were found.

With many questions about the health effects of household chemicals unanswered, some experts worry

that giving people information about their everyday exposures will cause unnecessary fear. However, the researchers found that the women in their study were typically not alarmed,and instead wanted “more rather than less”information on the issue.

1.Which of the following statements about chemicals in household products is TRUE?

A.It is uncertain what effects some chemicals have on health.

B.Long term exposure to them is certain to cause a deadly illness.

C.In the study it was found that certain chemicals can cause cancers.

D.Some of them have bad effects on health, while some have good effects.

2.The underlined word “airways”in Paragraph 3 most probably refers to ________.A.things that look like fine threads growing in the body

B.the passage running from your nose and throat to the lungs

C.the passage between rows of rooms in a building

D.the area just inside the front door of a building

3.Why is it not clear how to reduce exposure to chemicals?

A.Because all everyday products contain chemicals.

B.Because much is unknown about the sources.

C.Because measures have not been tested for their effects.

D.Because chemicals come from a variety of sources.

4.According to Dr Rebecca Altman,________.

A.women were more likely to be harmed by chemicals

B.it is unnecessary to inform people about the study results

C.fragrant products may contain harmful chemicals

D.further study on everyday products should be done immediately

Ⅱ.完形填空

(2015·邢台高三摸底考试)My 13-year-old son and I had quite the adventure this

morning! We frequently passed by a ___1__ landscaped yard with a nice little flower garden. I wanted to ___2___ my thanks for the time and effort put in by the ___3___,but I’ve never seen him or her, so we went to a local nursery and bought a gift card that I would leave with a __4___ and a smile card the next time that I passed by.

We also ran to Walmart and ___5__ a few $10 gift cards along with some note cards and our other __6__.While we were putting our things away in the car, my son

__7__ that a lady that had just parked next to us looked a little __8__. As soon as she entered the __9__,we grabbed a note card, made a note ___10__,and added a gift card for her to find when she got back to her __11__,hoping to comfort her feelings.

After that, we went for a(n) ___12__ breakfast. The restaurant was pretty __13__ and the people working in the kitchen seemed to be busy forever. A young couple ___14__ across the dining table from us was having some trouble with their __15__,who looked to be about four or five. He grew __16__ and impatient with the wait and they had their hands __17__keeping him from making troubles.

I remembered being in their __18__,so I stopped their ___19___ and had their breakfast added to my check. Great __20__ to my day, and I can’t wait to do it again!

1.A.smoothly B.carelessly

C.roughly D.beautifully

2.A.express B.recognize

C.design D.accept

3. A.nurse

B.dentist

C.gardener

D.passer-by

4.A.present B.note

C.book D.diploma

5.A.bought B.borrowed

C.sold D.imported

6. A.instruments B.desserts

C.vegetables D.groceries

7. A.suspected B.observed

C.imagined D.reserved

8. A.elegant B.generous

C.excited D.upset

9.A.store B.clinic

C.bank D.nursery

10. A.slowly B.unwillingly

C.quickly D.shyly

11. A.house B.car

C.bike D.bench

12. A.early B.boring

C.expensive D.late

13.A.decorated B.empty

C.packed D.deserted

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/d0a360801ed9ad51f11df279.htmlin B.loaded

C.seated D.arranged

15.A.son B.daughter

C.dog D.pet

16.A.defenseless B.tireless

C.careless D.restless

17.A.available B.full

C.normal D.necessary

18.A.shorts B.gloves

C.shoes D.socks

19.A.waitress B.child

C.customer D.hostess

20.A.end B.start

C.story D.dream

Ⅲ.语法填空

(2015·河南普通毕业班适应性练习)A young lady confidently walked around the room with a raised glass of water, and everyone knew she was going to ask the question,“half empty or half full?”

She 1.____________ (fool) them all.“How heavy is this glass of water?”she inquired with a smile.2.____________ (answer) came out from 8 oz. to 20 oz.

She replied,“The absolute weight doesn’t matter.3.____________ depends on how long I hold it. If I hold it for a minute, that’s not a problem. If I hold it for an hour, I 4.____________ (have) an ache in my right arm. If I hold it for a day, you’ll have to call an ambulance. In each case it’s the same weight, but the longer I hold it, the 5.____________(heavy) it becomes.” She continued,“And that’s the way it is with stress. If we carry our burdens all the time, sooner or later, as the burden becomes 6.____________ (increasing) heavy, we won’t be able to carry on.”

“As with the glass of water, you have to put it down for a while and rest before 7.____________ (hold) it again. When we’re refreshed, we can carry on 8.____________ the burden—holding stress longer and better each time practiced.”

So, as early in the evening 9.____________ you can, put all your burdens down. Don’t carry them through the evening and into the night.Pick them 10.____________ tomorrow.

1

Ⅰ.阅读理解

【解题导语】本文是一篇说明文,阐述了人们在日常生活中所使用的家居用品中所含的化学成分可能给人的健康带来的诸多影响。

1.解析:选A。推理判断题。根据文章第三段第一句“Much is unknown about the possible health effects of chemicals in everyday household products.”,该段最后一句“Many more chemicals found remain untested.”及文章最后一段第一句“With many questions about the health effects of household chemicals unanswered...”可知,目前家居用品所含的化学成分对人的健康的影响还有很多是不确定的。故答案选A。

2.解析:选B。词义猜测题。首先,从构词法的角度来看,airways由air(空气)和ways(道路)构成。再根据其前所并列的skin,eyes可知,airways应该是身体的某组织或器官,再根据破折号后的“and may worsen asthma(哮喘)”可知,airways指的应是人的呼吸道。故答案选B。

3.解析:选D。细节理解题。根据文章第四段中“Chemicals likely come from a range of sources,so it is not always clear how to reduce people’s exposure”可知,可能的化学污染源太多、太广,因此尚不清楚要如何减少化学物质对人们的危害。故答案选D。

4.解析:选C。细节理解题。根据第五段“In the original study...given advice based on the particular chemicals they were exposed to—such as using fragrance,free washing...”可知,研究者们会根据妇女可能接触到的一些特殊的化学物质,如芳香剂、免费洗手液和其他个人护理产品提出一些建议。由此可知,有香味的产品可能会含有有害物质。故答案选C。

Ⅱ.完形填空

【解题导语】作者讲述了自己和儿子的一次美好经历。

1.解析:选D。根据此空后的“landscaped yard with a nice little flower garden”可推断,此处表示“一个经过美化的漂亮的院子”。故选D项。smoothly意为“平稳地,顺畅地”;carelessly意为“粗心地”;roughly意为“粗略地”。

2.解析:选A。“我”想对这位投入时间和精力的园丁表达(express)感谢。recognize 意为“认出,识别”;design意为“设计”;accept意为“接受”。

3.解析:选C。根据上一句“We frequently passed by a ______ landscaped yard with a nice little flower garden.”可推断,此处表示“我”想对这位能够把院子美化得如此漂亮的园丁(gardener)表示感激。

4.解析:选B。根据第二段第一句中的“a few $ 10 gift cards along with some note cards”可知,此处应用note“便条”。

5.解析:选A。“我”和儿子到沃尔玛买(bought)了10美元的礼物卡。

6.解析:选D。instrument意为“器具,仪表”;dessert意为“甜点”;vegetable意为“蔬菜”;grocery意为“食品杂货”。根据语境可知应选D项。

7.解析:选B。根据语境可知,此处表示“我的儿子注意到刚才紧挨着我们停车的一位女士”,observe“观察到,注意到”,符合语境。suspect“怀疑,猜想”;imagine“想象”;reserve“保留,预订”。

8.解析:选D。根据下文的“hoping to comfort her feelings”可推断,此处表示这位女士看上去有点儿沮丧,故选upset“难过,沮丧”。elegant意为“高雅的,优雅的”;generous 意为“慷慨的,大方的”;excited意为“兴奋的,高兴的”。

9.解析:选A。根据上文可知,我们停车去沃尔玛购物,这位女士的车停在我们的旁边,由此可推测此处表示她进入商店,故选store“商店”。clinic意为“诊所”;bank意为“银行”;nursery意为“托儿所”。

10.解析:选C。根据语境中的“As soon as”和“grabbed”可知,此处应用quickly“迅速地”。slowly意为“缓慢地,慢慢地”;unwillingly意为“不情愿地”;shyly意为“害羞地”。

11.解析:选B。根据前文“parked”(停车)可知,应用car。

12.解析:选D。early“早的”;boring“令人厌烦的”;expensive“昂贵的”;late“迟的”。根据上文可知,“我”已经做了一系列的事情,故此处表示比较迟的早餐,即D项正确。

13.解析:选C。decorated“装饰的”;empty“空的”;packed“挤满人的”;deserted“空寂无人的”。根据空后的“and the people working in the kitchen seemed to be busy forever”可推断C项正确。

14.解析:选C。根据语境可知,此处表示“在我们对面的餐桌上坐着一对年轻的夫妻”,故选seat“使就座”。

15.解析:选A。根据此空后的“who looked to be about four or five. He grew...”可推断,此处表示这对年轻夫妻的儿子,即A项正确。

16.解析:选D。defenseless意为“无防御的”;tireless意为“不知疲倦的”;careless 意为“粗心的”;restless意为“坐立不安的”。根据此空后的impatient“没有耐心的,焦躁的”可知,此处表示年轻夫妻的儿子坐立不安,即D项正确。

17.解析:选B。此处表示这对夫妻忙着阻止儿子捣乱,have one’s hands full意为“非常忙,应接不暇”,即B项正确。

18.解析:选C。in sb.’s shoes意为“处于某人的境地”,为固定短语,符合此处的语境。

19.解析:选A。“我”截住了服务员(waitress),告诉她把这对夫妻的早餐钱加到“我”的账单里。

20.解析:选B。这是上午发生的事,故指的是“我”一天美好的开始,即B项start 正确。

Ⅲ.语法填空

【解题导语】本文是一篇简短的哲理故事。故事中主人公用一杯水比喻人的压力:压力就像水杯里的水一样,我们举杯子的时间越长,就越会感觉到水变得更重。压力也是如此,我们越放不下,就越会感觉到压力,所以我们要学会“放下”。

1.解析:考查动词的时态。根据上下文可知,本文叙述的是过去的事情,所以用一般过去时。

答案:fooled

2.解析:考查名词。根据“from 8 oz.to 20 oz.”可知,多个人回答了问题,所以用名词的复数形式。注意首字母大写。

答案:Answers

3.解析:考查代词。It代指weight。It depends on...是固定句型,意为“这取决于……”。故填It。注意首字母大写。

答案:It

4.解析:考查动词的时态。这是if引导的条件状语从句,从句用一般现在时表示将来,主句用一般将来时。

答案:will have

5.解析:考查形容词的比较级。这里是一个固定句式“the+比较级,the+比较级”,意为“越……越……”。此处指举的时间越长,它就变得越重。故用heavy的比较级heavier。

答案:heavier

6.解析:考查副词。应用副词修饰形容词heavy。故填increasingly。

答案:increasingly

7.解析:考查非谓语动词。因为空格前的“before”为介词,所以用动名词形式。

答案:holding

8.解析:考查介词。carry on with sth.为固定搭配,意为“继续做……”。

答案:with

9.解析:考查固定搭配。空格处与前面的“as”构成固定句式“as...as you can”,意为“尽可能……”。

答案:as

10.解析:考查固定搭配。pick up有拿起之意。句意:明天再拾起这些压力吧。

答案:up