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定语从句、同位语从句和强调句

必修二Unit1定语从句、同位语从句和强调句

定语从句和同为语从句的区别

1.从词类上区别

同位语从句前面的名词只能是idea, fact, news, hope, belief, suggestion, proposal, word, thought, doubt, truth, possibility, promise, order等表示抽象意义的名词。而定语从句的先行词可以是名词、代词、主句的一部分或整个主句。如:

We are looking into the question whether he is worth trusting.

我们正在调查的是他是否值得信赖的问题。

(同位语从句)

Word came that he had gone abroad.

据说他已经出国了。

(同位语从句)

The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room.

你找的那位医生在房间里面。

(定语从句,名词the doctor作先行词)

Our team has won the game, which makes us very happy.

(定语从句,which代表前面提到的整个句子)

His mother did all she could to help him with his study.

他妈妈尽最大努力帮他学习。

(定语从句,代词all作先行词)

2.从性质上区别

定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于形容词性从句的范畴;而同位语从句是从句对前面抽象名词的进一步说明和解释,属于名词性从句的范畴。如:

The news that our team has won the game is true.

我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。

(同位语从句,补充说明news的内容。)

The news (that) he told me yesterday is true.

昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。

(定语从句,that 从句作定语修饰news)

I made a promise that if anyone set me free I would make him very rich.

我许诺如果谁让我自由,我就让他非常富有。

(同位语从句,补充说明promise)

The mother made a promise that pleased all her children.

妈妈做出了一个令她的孩子们高兴的许诺。

(定语从句,that从句作定语修饰promise)

3.从引导词及其在句子中的成份上区别有些引导词如how, whether, what可以引导同位语从句,但不能引导定语从句。如:

That question whether we need it has not been considered.

我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。

(同位语从句)

引导词that引导定语从句时,在从句中一般作主语或宾语(指物时还可以用which代替),并且作宾语时常常省略。that在同位语从句中仅起连接作用,不充当任何成份,并且不能省略,也不能用which来代替。

The order that we (should) send a few people to help the other groups was received yesterday.

我们应派几个人去帮助别的几个小组的命令昨天已收到了。

(同位语从句,是对order的具体解释,that虽不作成份,但不能省略)

The order (that) we received yesterday was that we (should) send a few people to help the other groups.