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2014年6月英语四级仔细阅读真题(第一套)及答案Passage One

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

When young women were found to make only 82 percent of what their male peers do just one year out of college, many were at a loss to explain it.

All the traditional reasons put forward to interpret the pay gap-that women fall behind when they leave the workforce to raise kids, for example, or that they don't seek as many management roles-failed to justify this one. These young women didn't have kids yet. And because they were just one year removed from their undergraduate degrees, few of these women yet had the chance to go after (much less decline) leadership roles.

But there are other reasons why the pay gap remains so persistent. The first is that no matter how many women may be getting college degrees, the university experience is still an unequal one. The second is that our higher education system is not designed to focus on the economic consequences of our students' years on campus.

Now that women are the majority of college students and surpass men in both the number of undergraduate and advanced degrees awarded, one might think the college campus is a pretty equal place. It is not. Studies show that while girls do better than boys in high school, they start to trail off during their college years. They enroll in different kinds of classes, tend to major in less rigorous (非常严格的) subjects, and generally head off with less ambitious plans.

As a result, it's not surprising that even the best educated young women enter the workplace with a slight disadvantage. Their college experience leaves them somewhat confused, still stumbling (栽倒) over the dilemmas their grandmothers' generation sought to destroy. Are they supposed to be pretty or smart? Strong or sexy (性感的) All their lives, today's young women have been pushed to embrace both perfection and passion-to pursue science and sports, math and theater-and do it all as well as they possibly can. No wonder they are not negotiating for higher salaries as soon as they get out of school. They are too exhausted, and too scared of failing.

56. Traditionally, it is believed that women earn less than men because ______.

A) they have failed to take as many rigorous courses

B) they do not feel as fit for management roles

C) they feel obliged to take care of their kids at home

D) they do not exhibit the needed leadership qualities

57. What does the author say about America's higher education system?

A) It does not offer specific career counseling to women.

B) It does not consider its economic impact on graduates.

C) It does not take care of women students' special needs.

D) It does not encourage women to take rigorous subjects.

58. What does the author say about today's college experience?

A) It is different for male and female students.

B) It is not the same as that of earlier generations.

C) It is more exhausting than most women expect.

D) It is not so satisfying to many American students.

59. What does the author say about women students in college?

A) They have no idea how to bring out their best.

B) They drop a course when they find it too rigorous.

C) They are not as practical as men in choosing courses.

D) They don't perform as well as they did in high school.

60. How does the author explain the pay gap between men and women fresh from college?

A) Women are too worn out to be ambitious.

B) Women are not ready to take management roles.

C) Women are caught between career and family.

D) Women are not good at negotiating salaries.

Passage Two

Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

Heading leadership literature, you'd sometimes think that everyone has the potential to be an effective leader.

I don't believe that to be true. In fact, I see way fewer truly effective leaders than I see people stuck in positions of leadership who are sadly incompetent and seriously misguided about their own abilities.

Part of the reason this happens is a lack of honest self-assessment by those who aspire to (追求) leadership in the first place.

We've all met the type of individual who simply must take charge. Whether it's a decision-making session, a basketball game, or a family outing, they can't help grabbing the lead dog position and clinging on to it for dear life. They believe they're natural born leaders.

Truth is, they're nothing of the sort. True leaders don't assume that it's their divine (神圣的) right, to take charge every time two or more people get together. Quite the opposite. A great leader will assess each situation on its merits, and will only take charge when their position, the situation, and/or the needs of the moment demand it.

Many business executives confuse leadership with action. They believe that constant motion somehow generates leadership as a byproduct. Faced with any situation that can't be solved by the sheer force of activity, they generate a dust cloud of impatience. Their one leadership tool is volume: if they think you aren't working as hard as they think you should, their demands become increasingly louder and harsher.

True leaders understand the value of action, of course, but it isn't their only tool. In fact, it isn't even their primary tool. Great leaders see more than everyone else: answers, solutions, patterns, problems, opportunities. They know it's vitally important to do, but they also know that thinking, understanding, reflection and interpretation are equally important.

If you're too concerned with outcomes to the extent that you manipulate and intimidate others to achieve those outcomes, then you aren't leading at all, you're dictating. A true leader is someone who develops his or her team so that they can and do hit their targets and achieve their goals.


61. What does the author think of the leaders he knows?

A) Many of them are used to taking charge.

B) Few of them are equal to their positions.

C) Many of them fail to fully develop their potential.

D) Few of them are familiar with leadership literature.

62. Why are some people eager to grab leadership positions?

A) They believe they have the natural gift to lead.

B) They believe in what leadership literature says.

C) They have proved competent in many situations.

D) They derive great satisfaction from being leaders.

63. What characterizes a great leader according to the author?

A) Being able to take prompt action when chances present themselves.

B) Having a whole-hearted dedication to their divine responsibilities.

C) Having a full understanding of their own merits and weaknesses.

D) Being able to assess the situation carefully before taking charge.

64. How will many business executives respond when their command fails to generate action?

A) They reassess the situation at hand.

B) They become impatient and rude.

C) They resort to any tool available.

D) They blame their team members.

65. What is the author's advice to leaders?

A) Concentrate on one specific task at a time.

B) Use different tools to achieve different, goals.

C) Build up a strong team to achieve their goals.

D) Show determination when faced with tough tasks.


Passage One

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

Hospitals, hoping to curb medical error, have invested heavily to put computers, smartphones and other devices into the hands of medical staff for instant access to patient data, drug information and case studies.

But like many cures, this solution has come with an unintended side effect; doctors and nurses can be focused on the screen and not the patient, even during moments of critical care. A poll showed that half of medical technicians had admitted texting during a procedure.

This phenomenon has set off an intensifying discussion at hospitals and medical schools about a problem perhaps best described as " distracted doctoring. " In response, some hospitals have begun limiting the use of electronic devices in critical settings, while schools have started reminding medical students to focus on patients instead of devices.

"You justify carrying devices around the hospital to do medical records, but you can surf the Internet or do Facebook, and sometimes Facebook is more tempting, " said Dr. Peter Papadakos at the University of Rochester Medical Center.

"My gut feeling (本能的感觉) is lives are in danger," said Dr. Papadakos. "We're not educating people about the problem, and it's getting worse. "

A survey of 439 medical technicians found that 55 percent of technicians who monitor bypass machines acknowledged that they had talked on cellphones during heart surgery. Half said they had texted while in surgery. The study concluded, " Such distractions have the potential to be disastrous. "

Medical professionals have always faced interruptions from cellphones, and multitasking is

simply a fact of life for many medical jobs. What has changed, say doctors, especially younger ones, is that they face increasing pressure to interact with their devices.

The pressure stems from a mantra(信条) of modem medicine that patient care must be " data driven," and informed by the latest, instantly accessible information. By many accounts, the technology has helped reduce medical error by providing instant access to patient data or prescription details.

Dr. Peter Carmel, president of the American Medical Association, said technology "offers great potential in health care," but he added that doctors' first priority should be with the patient.


56.Why do hospitals equip their staff with computers, smartphones and other devices?

A) To reduce medical error.

B) To cope with emergencies.

C) To facilitate administration.

D) To simplify medical procedures.

57. What does the author refer to by " distracted doctoring" ?

A) The disservice done by modem devices to doctors, nurses, as well as patients.

B) The tendency of medical institutions encouraging the use of modem devices.

C) The problem of devices preventing doctors from focusing on their patients.

D) The phenomenon of medical staff attending to personal affairs while working.

58.What does Dr. Peter Papadakos worry about?

A) Medical students are not adequately trained to use modem technology.

B) Doctors' interaction with their devices may endanger patients' lives.

C) octors are relying too heavily on modem electronic technology.

D) Pressures on the medical profession may become overwhelming.

59. Why do doctors feel increasing pressure to use modem devices?

A) Patients trust doctors who use modem technology.

B) Use of modem devices adds to hospitals' revenues.

C) Data is given too much importance in patient care.

D) Patients' data has to be revised from time to time.

60. What is Peter Carmel's advice to doctors?

A) They follow closely the advances in medical science.

B) They focus their attention on the patient's condition.

C) They observe hospital rules and regulations.

D) They make the best use of modem devices.

Passage Two

Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

I have closely watched my generation, known as The Millennials, for 29 years now. Joel

Stein wrote an extensive piece on Millennials and he remains rather optimistic about our potential.

I hesitate to share his optimism because of a paradox (矛盾的现象) we seem to exhibit, namely, that there are more avenues for us to entertain ourselves than ever before, yet we are more bored than ever before.

Entertainment has never been more varied. We have more cable channels, television shows, and movies than ever before. Internet providers allow instant viewing of almost any movie or television program ever created. Social drinking and partying are also widely available for Millennials. Every generation develops these habits at a certain age, but Millennials seem to be extending this phase of life as they postpone marriage.

Some of this is undoubtedly due to The Great Recession. Millennials are having a difficult time finding jobs; only 47 percent of 16-to-24-year-olds are employed, the smallest share since government started recording data in 1948.

But do Millennials respond to these economic troubles by doing whatever it takes to make ends meet? Hardly. In fact, of the four generations Pew Research has data for, the Millennial generation does not cite work ethic (勤奋工作) as distinctive of itself. Millennials want to save the world, but they sit and wait for that world-changing opportunity to be handed to them. Instead of working 2 -3 jobs, launching a business, or doing what it takes to succeed, they retreat. Millennials may be the first generation to have a lower standard of living than their parents, but with this response to adversity (逆境), perhaps deservingly so.

Much ink has been spilled in management books discussing how to get the most out of these youths in the workplace. Largely, they come to the same conclusion; Millennials are entitled, over-confident, and expect too much too quickly. We should not be surprised. Today's young adults were raised by parents who made sure to boost their self-esteem at every turn, telling them they could achieve whatever they set their minds to, and handing out prizes for the sixth place.

61. What does the author of the passage think of Millennials?

A) They show little interest in entertainment.

B) They are not confident about their ability.

C)They enjoy an easy life due to high technology.

D)They may not have bright prospects for success.

62. How do Millennials feel about their life?

A) They can hardly do anything about it.

C) It is not as good as their parents'.

B) There is little in it to get excited about.

D) It is full of opportunities for success.

63. In what way are Millennials different from previous generations according to Pew Research?

A) They spend less time socializing. C) They do not value hard work.

B) They are indifferent to others. D) They are more independent.

64. What should Millennials do according to the author?

A) Remain optimistic in face of adversity. C) Make full use of new opportunities.

B) Start a business as early as possible. D) Take action to change their situation.

65. Why are Millennials over-confident about themselves?

A) They have been spoiled by their parents. C) They are misguided by management books.

B) They can always get whatever they expect. D) They think they are young and energetic.


Passage One

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

The question of whether our government should promote science and technology or the liberal arts in higher education isn't an either/or proposition (命题) , although the current emphasis on preparing young Americans for STEM (science, technology, engineering, maths ) related fields can make it seem that way.

The latest congressional report acknowledges the critical importance of technical training, but also asserts that the study of the humanities (人文学科) and social sciences must remain central components of America's educational system at all levels. Both areas are critical to producing citizens who can participate effectively in our democratic society, become innovative (创新) leaders, and benefit from the spiritual enrichment that the reflection on the great ideas of mankind over time provides.

Parents and students who have invested heavily in higher education worry about graduates' job prospects as technological advances and changes in domestic and global markets transform professions in ways that reduce wages and cut jobs. Under these circumstances, it's natural to look for what may appear to be the most "practical" way out of the problem: "Major in a subject designed to get you a job" seems the obvious answer to some, though this ignores the fact that many disciplines in the humanities characterized as "soft" often, in fact, lead to employment and success in the long run. Indeed, according to surveys,

employers have expressed a preference for students who have received a broadly-based education that has taught them to write well, think critically, research creatively, and communicate easily.

Moreover, students should be prepared not just for their first job, but for their 4th and 5th jobs, as there's little reason to doubt that people entering the workforce today will be called upon to play many different roles over the course of their careers. The ones who will do the best in this new environment will be those whose educations have prepared them to be flexible. The ability to draw upon every available tool and insight-picked up from science, arts, and technology-to solve the problems of the future, and take advantage of the opportunities that present themselves, will be helpful to them and the United States.

56. What does the latest congressional report suggest?

A) STEM-related subjects help students find jobs in the information society.

B) The humanities and STEM subjects should be given equal importance.

C) The liberal arts in higher education help enrich students' spiritual life.

D) Higher education should be adjusted to the practical needs of society.


57. What is the main concern of students when they choose a major?

A) Their interest in relevant subjects.

B) The academic value of the courses.

C) The quality of education to receive.

D) Their chances of getting a good job.


58. What does the author say about the so-called soft, subjects?

A) They benefit students in their future life.

B) They broaden students' range of interests.

C) They improve students' communication skills.

D) They are essential to students' healthy growth.


59. What kind of job applicants do employers look for?

A) Those who have a strong sense of responsibility.

B) Those who are good at solving practical problems.

C) Those who are likely to become innovative leaders.

D) Those who have received a well-rounded education.


60. What advice does the author give to college students?

A) Seize opportunities to tap their potential.

B) Try to take a variety of practical courses.

C) Prepare themselves for different job options.

D) Adopt a flexible approach to solving problems.


Passage Two

Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

Energy independence. It has a nice ring to it, doesn't it? If you think so, you're not alone, because energy independence has been the dream of American presidents for decades, and never more so than in the past few years, when the most recent oil price shock has

been partly responsible for kicking off the great recession.

"Energy independence" and its rhetorical (修辞的) companion "energy security" are, however, slippery concepts that are rarely thought through. What is it we want independence from, exactly?

Most people would probably say that they want to be independent from imported oil. But there are reasons that we buy all that oil from elsewhere.

The first reason is that we need it to keep our economy running. Yes, there is a trickle (涓涓细流) of biofuel (生物燃料) available, and more may become available, but most biofuels cause economic waste and environmental destruction.

Second, Americans have basically decided that they don't really want to produce all their own oil. They value the environmental quality they preserve over their oil imports from abroad. Vast areas of the United States are off-limits to oil exploration and production in the name of environmental protection. To what extent are Americans really willing to endure the environmental impacts of domestic energy production in order to cut back imports? Third, there are benefits to trade. It allows for economic efficiency, and when we buy things from places that have lower production costs than we do, we benefit. And although you don't read about this much, the United States is also a large exporter of oil products, selling about 2 million barrels of petroleum products per day to about 90 countries.

There is no question that the United States imports a great deal of energy and, in fact, relies on that steady flow to maintain its economy. When that flow is interrupted, we feel the pain in short supplies and higher prices. At the same time, we derive massive economic benefits when we buy the most affordable energy on the world market and when we engage in energy trade around the world.


61. What does the author say about energy independence for America?

A) It sounds very attractive.

B) It ensures national security.

C) It will bring oil prices down.

D) It has long been everyone's dream.


62. What does the author think of biofuels?

A) They keep America's economy running healthily.

B) They prove to be a good alternative to petroleum.

C) They do not provide a sustainable energy supply.

D) They cause serious damage to the environment.


63. Why does America rely heavily on oil imports?

A) It wants to expand its storage of crude oil.

B) Its own oil reserves are quickly running out.

C) It wants to keep its own environment intact.

D) Its own oil production falls short of demand.


64. What does the author say about oil trade?

A) It proves profitable to both sides.

B) It improves economic efficiency.

C) It makes for economic prosperity.

D) It saves the cost of oil exploration.


65. What is the author's purpose in writing the passage?

A) To justify America's dependence on oil imports.

B) To arouse Americans' awareness of the energy crisis.

C) To stress the importance of energy conservation.

D) To explain the increase of international oil trade.