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专题限时检测(十七) 阅读理解推理判断类之观点态度题



(2017·南通市高三第一次调研测试)Michael Herr, who has died aged 76, was the author of Dispatches (1977), the best book about the Vietnam War. Herr also made vital contributions to two of the best films on the war, Apocalypse Now and Full Metal Jacket.

It took Herr eight years to write Dispatches, in part because he went home from Saigon with a bad case of stress disorder. He had gone to Vietnam as a correspondent for Esquire magazine. An American general asked him whether he was there to write about military fashion, and another whether he was there to write humour. No, he told them. He wrote little for Esquire, but took advantage of the US government's decision to allow correspondents extraordinary access to go to war with the soldiers. He shared their discomforts and their fears, witnessed their death and recorded their language.

His own language, a stream of consciousness pulsing with energy, but masterfully controlled, captured the fear and the horror, but also the excitement, of the war in the jungle and paddy fields. “So much beauty”,he recalled, “and so much pleasure”. He recorded with a connoisseur's expertise (行家专长) such details as the many ways in which soldiers would wish each other good luck, and the degrees of madness that were considered acceptable.

He identified with the young soldiers and learned in the first few days that you could not affect neutrality (中立). “If_you_are_neutral,_you_don't_get_it,” said he. He generally did not carry a weapon, though on occasion he did fire at Vietnamese in emergencies. The young soldiers, he said, “are my guns”.The power of the book, perhaps, comes from Herr's insistence on describing the war, or more precisely his own responses to it, rather than protesting (抗议) against it. It also comes from the ceaseless accompaniment of two elements, drugs and music — more particularly rock music, and especially the music of Jimi Hendrix. Herr

himself spent drug-fuelled weekends in a flat in Saigon, staring at an ancient French map of Indochina, and he never caught a helicopter without a Hendrix record.

He met soldiers with a left pocket full of Dexedrine, the “upper” officially administered by the army to get them into battle, and a right pocket full of “downers” to get them through it. Dispatches did not come out until 1977, when the country was beginning to keep its mind on other problems, but it did more, perhaps, than any other book to freeze an image of despair and a sense of waste about the war, rather as the trench poets of 1914-1918 did in Britain.

Herr also made vital contributions to two of the most influential Vietnam films. He wrote Martin Sheen's voice-over for Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now and later wrote the screenplay for Stanley Kubrick's Full Metal Jacket. His work, in the book and the two films, has been seen as part of the process whereby the US came to see itself and its history no longer merely through traditional literature, but in sounds and images, in ways that prefigured (预示) the Internet.

In 1980 Herr moved to London, where he stayed until he moved back to the US in 1991. It was there that he met Stanley Kubrick, who became a close friend, though Herr warned against doing business with him. Herr wrote Kubrick's biography, but he wrote surprisingly little else after Dispatches.


1.Why did Michael Herr go to Vietnam during the war years?

A.To join the soldiers in military actions.

B.To report military actions and advances.

C.To give an authentic account of the war.

D.To write about military fashion and humour.

解析:选C 细节理解题。根据第二段中的“He had gone to Vietnam as a correspondent for Esquire magazine.”“... allow correspondents extraordinary access to go to war with the soldiers”和“He shared their disc omforts and their fears, witnessed their death and recorded their language.”可知,迈克尔·赫尔作为随军记者去了越南并真实地记录了这场战争中的点点滴滴。

2.What can we infer from Michael Herr's statement underlined in Paragraph 4?

A.It was impossible to remain neutral during the war.

B.It was unnecessary to show pity for the war victims.

C.Neutrality is a means to keep you safe during the war.

D.Neutrality can help the civilians free from sufferings.

解析:选 A 句意理解题。根据第四段第一句话中的“... you could not affect neutrality (中立)”可知,迈克尔·赫尔认识到在战场上是没有中立的立场的,再结合画线句的字面含义可知,此处指的是在战争中保持中立是不可能的。

3.Which of the following about Dispatches is TRUE?

A.It fully describes Herr's protest against the war.

B.Its language is casually selected and organized.

C.Music and drugs give the author inspiration.

D.It truly reflects Herr's responses to the war.

解析:选D 细节理解题。根据第五段的第一句可知,这本书真实地反映了迈克尔·赫尔对战争的看法。

4.US soldiers brought drugs with them during the war most probably because________.

A.they were addicted to drugs

B.they suffered stress disorder

C.they used them to cure the wounds

D.they exchanged them for music records

解析:选B 推理判断题。根据第六段第一句可知,士兵们上战场会带中枢神经兴奋剂和镇静剂,由此可推知,B项正确。

★5.Which of the following can best describe Herr's attitude towards the war?

A.Supportive. B.Uninterested.

C.Disapproving. D.Neutral.

解析:选 C 观点态度题。根据第六段最后一句话中的“ ... freeze an image of despair and a sense of waste about the war”可知,迈克尔·赫尔对战争是持反对态度的。

6.What can we learn from the last two paragraphs?

A.Herr's work offered Americans more ways to know themselves.

B.Herr stopped writing after the book Dispatches was published.

C.Herr rejected his friend's request to write a biography for him.

D.Herr's work played a positive role in the birth of the Internet.

解析:选A 推理判断题。根据倒数第二段中的“His work, in the book and the two films, has been seen as part of the process whereby the US came to see itself and its history ...”可知,迈克尔·赫尔的作品让美国人增进了对自身的了解。


(2017·江苏省六市高三联考)There are endless motivations for human behaviour,

from the basic drives for food to more complicated ones, such as sympathy, envy and anger. But none of these explain behaviours that we call compulsions (强迫症).They come from a need that is desperate and tortured (折磨). They may bring relief, but they bring little enjoyment, and while one part of our brain desperately wishes to stop them, another is afraid of stopping.

I used to view compulsions as foreign and almost frightening. But in the course of my research, two things happened. First, when I got to know people who were compulsive, their behaviour didn't seem unreasonable at all. Second, I realized that although people with the most extreme compulsions seem like outliers (另类人), the anxiety that drives them to those extremes is universal.

Over any year, many of us find ourselves in the control of a compulsion that falls short of something that is disabling enough to qualify as a mental disorder —in fact, some compulsions are adaptive, helping us lead our lives or perform our jobs more effectively.

Like many people, maybe you feel forced to reach for your smartphone as soon as you wake up in the morning. Fortunately a growing number of experts have begun to succeed in distinguishing addictions from compulsions.

An addiction begins with a flash of pleasure accompanied with danger; it's fun to gamble or to drink, and it also puts you at risk. Addictions involve acting without planning or even thought, driven by an urge for immediate satisfaction. Compulsions, in contrast, are all about avoiding unpleasant outcomes. They are behaviours we repeat many times to relieve the anxiety brought on by the possibility of negative consequences. But the actual behaviour is often unpleasant — or at least not particularly rewarding, especially after many rounds of it.

Behind every compulsion is the need to avoid what causes you pain or anxiety. Compulsive behaviour is not necessarily a mental disorder. Some forms of it can be, and people in its control deserve to be diagnosed and helped. But many are expressions of psychological needs we all feel: to be at peace and in control, to feel connected and to matter. And if those are mental illnesses, we're all crazy.


7.From the first two paragraphs, we know that ________.

A.compulsions can bring relief as well as enjoyment

B.compulsive people will prefer unreasonable behaviour

C.compulsions may be an understandable response to anxiety

D.compulsive people must be frightening and behave differently

解析:选C 细节理解题。通过前两段的内容,尤其是第二段可知,强迫症不是无法理解的,并且最后一句说那种驱使他们走向极端的担忧是很普遍的。故选C。

8.The main difference between addictions and compulsions lies in ________.

A.human relationships B.financial rewards

C.internal drives D.social expectations

解析:选C 推理判断题。文章倒数第二段告诉我们,addiction和compulsion的区别就是内在的动机不同,如addiction是为了一时的快乐,而compulsion则是为了避免不好的结果。因此选C。

★9.What's the author's attitude towards compulsion?

A.Objective. B.Negative.

C.Doubtful. D.Cautious.

解析:选A 观点态度题。通读全文可知,作者只是客观地讲述了强迫症的特点和影响,所以A项符合语境。


(2017·江苏省高考名校联考)The number of women taking maternity leave (产假) in the United States has not changed over the last two decades, according to a new study, even as the national economy has grown and new family leave policies have been implemented in three states.

Study author Jay Zagorsky says he began looking into maternity leave rates after two of his nieces gave birth around the same time last year. “One got an amazing package —full pay for a few months —and the other had to cobble (拼凑) together vacation and sick time,” he says. “I was astonished.”

“I did a little research, and there were no numbers,” he added. “The government tracks which employers provide maternity leave, but no one has calculated how many people are using it.” Zagorsky was troubled to find no increase over time, considering research that shows how beneficial it can be — for both parents and newborns — to spend time together. Giving mothers time off from work to bond with new babies has been shown to improve the physical and mental health of mothers, reduce cesarean deliveries, save infants' lives and encourage breastfeeding, the study notes.

Over the 22-year study, the US economy grew by 66%, and the gross domestic product rose from $9.9 trillion to $16.4 trillion a year. During that time, California, New Jersey and Rhode Island passed the first state laws to provide paid family leave.

New York will become the fourth state to offer paid family leave. In other states, most employees are covered by federal law providing 12 weeks of unpaid time off after a baby's birth. Individual companies or state policies may expand beyond these provisions.

But just because maternity leave is available doesn't mean women will take it, Zagorsky says. The Department of Labor estimates that only about 12% of private sector employees have access to paid family leave, and Zagorsky's study showed that only 47.5% of the women who took time off in 2015 were paid for it.

The rate of paid maternity leave increased over the study period, but only by a quarter of a percent per year. At that rate, Zagorsky says, it will take another decade before even 60% of US women going on leave receive such benefits. “This is a very low figure for the nation with the world's largest annual gross domestic product,” he writes.

Even if a woman is paid for her maternity leave, she_may_keep_herself_aloof_from_it. The reason may be that she's worried about being replaced or valued less at work, the study notes. She may also only receive a fraction of her normal salary, which can make providing for her family unmanageable.

The study suggests that the paid maternity leave laws that are in place may be “ineffective, not fully implemented, or too narrowly defined to have an impact”. The women who took time off after giving birth were more likely to be better educated and financially better off than the typical mother.

Zagorsky did not have information about the number of births every month, so he was unable to determine the exact percentage of working parents that used family leave. But based on the number of births per year, he estimates that about 10% of men and 54% of women take some time off. Based on employment and economic data, Zagorsky says the stalled (停顿的) maternity leave numbers can't be explained by unemployment rates, the recession or women dropping out of the workforce.

In a 2007 analysis of 173 countries, the United States was one of only four nations that didn't have a federal paid maternity leave policy for women after childbirth. In 98 countries, new mothers were required to receive at least 14 weeks of paid time off. During his campaign, President Donald Trump said he supported a plan for six weeks of paid leave for new mothers. (He has not proposed paid leave for fathers or other caregivers.) Even if those six weeks are implemented, Zagorsky

says, “We still have a long way to go to catch up with the rest of the world.”


10.Why does Jay Zagorsky mention his two nieces?

A.To introduce the subject of his study.

B.To state the purpose of his study.

C.To explain the inspiration behind his study.

D.To stress the significance of his study.

解析:选C 推理判断题。根据第二段中的“... says he began looking into maternity leave rates after two of his nieces gave birth ... vacation and sick time ...”可知,他的两个侄女差不多同时生孩子,但一个侄女得到了几个月的全薪产假,而另一个则不得不把她工作中的假期和病假拼凑到一起来休产假,这让他感到很惊讶,因此他才开始了针对产假的研究。由此可知,Jay Zagorsky提及他的两个侄女是为了说明他研究的灵感来源。故选C。

11.Which statement may Zagorsky agree with?

A.Unpaid maternity leave will be knocked out gradually.

B.At least 14-week paid maternity leave should be offered.

C.The US paid maternity leave policies are well carried out.

D.Few US women really benefit from the paid maternity leave.

解析:选D 细节理解题。根据第五、六段的内容及第八段中的“the paid maternity leave laws that are in place may be ‘ineffective, not fully implemented, or too narrowly defined to have an impact’”可知,Zagorsky认为:在美国,能真正从带薪产假中获益的女性是很少的。故选D。

12.The underlined sentence implies that a US woman ________.

A.may fail to take on her responsibilities

B.dare not voice her doubts and concerns

C.is dissatisfied with her maternity leave

D.may not take her paid maternity leave

解析:选D 句意理解题。根据画线句后的“The reason may be that she's worried about ...which can make providing for her family unmanageable.”可知,有带薪产假的女性会担心自己在工作中被取代或者不那么被重视,也有可能只能拿到正常工资的一部分从而使其不能养家糊口。因此,即使一位女性有带薪产假,她可能也会选择不参与,即不休产假。故选D。

13.In Zagorsky's view, what contributes to the unchanged maternity leave


A.High unemployment rates.

B.Maternity leave policies.

C.The worsening national economy.

D.Lack of female employees.

解析:选B 细节理解题。根据倒数第二段中的“Zagorsky says the stalled (停顿的) ...or women dropping out of the workforce”可知,高失业率、国民经济的恶化以及缺少女性劳动力都不是休产假的女性数量保持稳定的原因。再结合最后一段中的“the United States was one of only four nations ... Zagorsky says, ‘We st ill have a long way to go to catch up with the rest of the world.’”可知,这个问题和美国的产假政策有关。故选B。

★14.What's Zagorsky's attitude to the condition of maternity leave in America?

A.Doubtful. B.Subjective.

C.Concerned. D.Optimistic.

解析:选C 观点态度题。根据文中提到的美国经济虽然增长了,但休产假的女性的人数并没有显著增加,而大多数女性并未从美国现存的产假制度中受益等内容以及最后一段中的“We still have a long way to go to catch up with the rest of the world”可推知,Zagorsky对美国的产假制度是持一种担忧的态度的。

15.What is the best title for the passage?

A.Maternity leave isn't getting more popular in the US

B.Introducing paid maternity leave is a difficult task

C.Maternity leave still has a long way to go in the US

D.Maternity leave is all a matter of choice

解析:选 A 标题归纳题。根据文章内容尤其是第一段中的“The number of women taking maternity leave (产假) in ...even as the national economy has grown”可知,虽然美国的经济增长了,但女性休产假的人数并没有显著增加,即休产假在美国未流行起来。而下文的内容都是围绕这个主题进行论述的,故A项做本文标题最佳。