文档库

最新最全的文档下载
当前位置:文档库 > 研究生英语阅读教程(基础级2版)课文01及其翻译分析解析

研究生英语阅读教程(基础级2版)课文01及其翻译分析解析

World English: A Blessing or a Curse? Universal language

By Tom McArthur

[1] In the year 2000, the language scholar Glanville Price, a Welshman, made the following assertion as editor of the book Languages in Britain and Ireland:

For English is a killer. It is English that has killed off Cumbric, Cornish, Norn and Manx. There are still parts of these islands where sizeable communities speak languages that were there before English. Yet English is everywhere in everyday use and understood by all or virtually(actually) all, constituting such a threat to the three remaining Celtic languages, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Welsh... that their long-term future must be considered... very greatly at risk. (p 141) Some years earlier, in 1992, Robert Phillipson, English academic who currently (at the present/ at the moment) works in Denmark, published with Oxford a book entitled Linguistic Imperialism. In it, he argued that the major English-speaking countries, the worldwide English-language teaching industry, and notably (especially) the British Council pursue policies of linguistic aggrandisement. He also associated such policies with a prejudice which he calls linguicism[a condition parallel to(equal to/ similar to) racism and sexism]. As Phillipson sees it, leading institutions and individuals within the predominantly "white" English-speaking world, have [by design(=deliberately) or default(=mistake)] encouraged or at least tolerated—and certainly have not opposed—the hegemonic spread of English, a spread which began some (about) three centuries ago as (when) economic and colonial expansion.

[2] Phillipson himself worked for some years for the British Council, and he is not alone among Anglophone academics who have sought to point up the dangers of English as a world language. The internationalization of English has in the last few decades been widely discussed in terms of three groups: first, the ENL countries, where English is a native language (this group also being known as the "inner circle"); second, the ESL countries, where English is a second language (the "outer circle"); and third, the EFL countries, where English is a foreign language (the "expanding circle"). Since the 1980s, when such terms became common, this third circle has in fact expanded to take in the entire planet.

[3] For good or for ill, there has never been a language quite like English. There have been many "world languages", such as Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit. By and large, we now view them as more or less benign, and often talk with admiration and appreciation about the cultures associated with them and what they have given to the world. And it is fairly (very) safe to do this, because none of them now poses much of a threat.

[4] English however is probably (perhaps) too close for us to be able to analyze and judge it as dispassionately (objectively), as we may now discuss the influence of Classical Chinese on East Asia or of Classical Latin on Western Europe. The jury is still out in the trial of the English language, and may take several centuries to produce its verdict, but even so we can ask, in this European Year of Languages, whether Price and Phillipson are right to warn us all about the language that I am using at this very moment. [warn sb. of sth.]

[5] It certainly isn't hard(difficult) to look for situations (examples) where people might call English a curse. An example is Australia, which is routinely regarded as a straightforward English-speaking country. The first Europeans who went there often used Latin to describe and discuss the place. The word Australia itself is Latin; evidently (Obviously/ Apparently) no one at the time thought of simply calling it "Southland" (which is what Australia means). In addition

(besides), in South Australia there is a wide stretch of land called the Nullarbor Plains, the first word of which sounds Aboriginal, but nullarbor is Latin and means "no trees". And most significantly of all, the early settlers called the continent a terra nullius. According to the Encarta World English Dictionary (1999) the Latin phrase terra nullius means:

... the idea and legal concept that when the first Europeans arrived in Australia the land was owned by no one and therefore open to settlement. It has been judged not to be legally valid.

But that judgment was made only recently. When the Europeans arrived, Australia was thinly populated—but populated nonetheless (from then on)—from coast to coast in every direction. There were hundreds of communities and languages. Many of these languages have died out, many more are in the process of dying out, and these dead and dying languages have been largely replaced (substituted) by either kinds of pidgin English or general Australian English. Depending on your point of view, this is either a tragic loss or the price of progress.

[6] At the same time, however, can the blame for the extinction of Aboriginal languages be laid specifically at the door of English? The first Europeans to discover Australia were Dutch, and their language might have become the language of colonization and settlement. Any settler language could have had the same effect. If for example the Mongols had sustained their vast Eurasian empire, Mongolian might have become a world language and gone to Australia. Again, if history had been somewhat (a little) different, today's world language might have been Arabic, a powerful language in West Asia and North Africa that currently affects many smaller languages, including Coptic and Berber. Spanish has adversely (negatively) affected indigenous languages in so-called "Latin" America, and Russian has spread from Europe to the Siberian Pacific. If English is a curse and a killer, it may only be so in the sense (meaning) that any large language is likely (possible) to influence and endanger smaller languages.

[7] Yet many people see (consider/ regard) English as a blessing. Let me leave aside here the obvious advantages possessed by any world language, such as a large communicative network, a strong literary and media complex (network), and a powerful cultural and educational apparatus (organization). Let us instead look at something rather different: the issue (problem) of politics, justice, and equality. My object (target) lesson this time is South Africa. Ten years ago, South Africa ceased (stopped) to be governed on principles of racial separateness, a system known in Afrikaans (a language derived from Dutch) as apartheid. The system arose (occurred) because the Afrikaner community—European settlers of mainly Dutch descent—saw themselves as superior to the indigenous (native) people of the land they had colonized.

[8] English-speaking South Africans of British descent were not particularly strong in opposing the apartheid regime (rule), and the black opposition, whose members had many languages, was at first weak and disorganized. However, the language through which this opposition gained (obtained/ got) strength and organization was English, which became for them the key language of freedom and unity, not of oppression. There are today eleven official languages in South Africa—English, Afrikaans, and nine vernacular languages that include Zulu, Ndebele, and Setswana. But which of these nine do black South Africans use (or plan to use) as their national lingua franca? Which do they wish their children to speak and write successfully (in addition to their mother tongues)? The answer is none of the above. They want English, and in particular (especially/ specifically) they want a suitably Africanized English.

[9] So, a curse for the indigenous peoples of Australia and something of a blessing for those in South Africa...

[10] How then should we think of English in our globalizing world with its endangered diversities? The answer, it seems to me, is crystal clear. Like many things, English is at times (often) a blessing and at times a curse—for individuals, for communities (society), for nations, and even for unions of nations. The East Asian symbolism of yin and yang might serve (illustrate) well here: There is something of yang in every yin, of yin in every yang. Although they are opposites, they belong together: in this instance (case) within the circle of communication. Such symbolism suggests (shows) that the users of the world's lingua franca should seek to benefit as fully as possible from the blessing and as far as possible avoid invoking the curse. (1, 292 words)

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. Tom McArthur is founder editor of the Oxford Companion to the English Language (1992) and the quarterly English Today: The International Review of the English Language (Cambridge, 1985—). His more than 20 published works include the Longman Lexicon of Contemporary English (1981), Worlds of Reference: Language, Lexicography and Learning from the Clay Tablet to the Computer (1986), and The English Languages (1998). He is currently Deputy Director of the Dictionary Research Center at the University of Exeter.

EXERCISES

I. Reading Comprehension

Answer the following questions or complete the, following statements.

1. It can be inferred from Glanville Price's statement that he is ______.

A. happy that English is everywhere in Britain and Ireland

B. worried about the future of the remaining Celtic languages

C. shocked by the diversity of languages in Britain and Ireland

D. amazed that many people in the UK still speak their Aboriginal languages

2. Cumbric is used as an example of ______.

A. a local dialect

B. a victim of the English language

C. a language that is on the verge of extinction

D. a language that is used by only a limited number of people

3. Which of the following is the major concern of the book Linguistic Imperialism?

A. English teaching overseas.

B. British government's language policies.

C. Dominance of English over other languages.

D. The role of English in technology advancement.

4. Both Price and Phillipson are ______.

A. government officials

B. advocates of linguistic imperialism

C. in support of language policies carried out by the British Council

D. concerned about the negative effect of English on smaller languages

5. According to the text, the EFL countries ______.

A. are large in number

B. is known as the "outer circle"

C. will be endangered by English

D. have made English their official language

6. According to McArthur, Chinese is different from English in that ______.

A. it has made a great contribution to the world

B. it has had positive influence on other languages

C. it may result in the disappearance of other languages

D. it probably will not endanger the existence of other languages

7. When he said the jury is out in the trial" (Line 3, Paragraph 4), McArthur meant ______.

A. punishment is due

B. the jury is waiting for a trial

C. no decision has been made yet

D. there is no one to make the decision

8. Australia might be used as an example to show that ______.

A. languages are changing all the time

B. some English words are derived from Latin

C. English has promoted the progress of some nations

D. English should be blamed for the extinction of smaller languages

9. Many people see English as a blessing for people in ______.

A. Australia

B. East Asia

C. South Africa

D. ESL countries

10. The main theme of this speech is that ______.

A. English should be taught worldwide

B. English as a world language does more harm than good

C. we should be objective to the internationalization of English

D. we should be aware of (realize) the danger of English as a world language

B. Questions on global understanding and logical structures

1. Why does McArthur introduce Glanville Price and Robert Phillipson's points of view on the spread of English? What is his? Intention?

McArthur quotes Price’s assertion and cites Pillipson’s viewpoint on the spread of English as sort of cons to initiate his argument. Cons are usually popularly believed arguments or opinions that are against the author’s point of view. Cons are c ommonly used writing techniques and are often employed in order to appeal the audience and highlight the author’s

viewpoint.

2. Does McArthur agree with what Price and Phillipson argued? From as early as which section does McArthur show his attitude? Toward the dominance of English as a world English?

No. McArthur’s opinion is different from Price and Pillipson’s arguments. He doesn’t believe that English is a killer and should be blamed for the extinction of smaller languages. He sees English as both a blessing and a curse, maybe as a blessing more than a curse. After introducing Price and Pillipson’s viewpoints, McArthur writes about his own ideas on the issue of English as a world language. From the sentence “For good or for ill, there has never been a language quite like English”, we can learn that McArthur does not curse English like Price and Pillipson and he has a different point of view.

3. By reading "It certainly isn't hard to look for situations where people might call English a curse", could we conclude that McArthur believes English is a curse?

No. This sentence is a kind of justification. Although McArthur literally justifies the fact that there are situations where people might call English a curse, he doesn’t believe that English is virtua lly a curse. By adding the word “certainly” McArthur shows his intent.

4. Could you pick up some words and expressions that signal change or continuation in McArthur's thought?

“For good or for ill”(paragraph 3) /“however”(paragraph 4) /“But”(paragraph 5) / “At the same time, however”(paragraph 6) /“Yet”(paragraph 7)

5. How many parts can this speech be divided? How are the parts organized?

Part One: paragraphs 1 and 2. These two paragraphs introduce the situation that many academics argue against English as a world language.

Part Two: paragraphs 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Paragraph three is a transitional paragraph that initiates McArthur’s own argument. In these paragraphs McArthur argues that English is not only a curse as many people have believed, but a blessing as well.

Part Three: paragraph 10. McArthur concludes in the last paragraph that English may be a curse or a blessing depends on different situations and we should make advantages of world languages and avoid their disadvantages.

II. Vocabulary

A. Choose the best word from the four choices to complete each of the following sentences.

1. There has been much opposition from some social groups, ______ from the farming community.

A. straightforwardly

B. notably(especially)

C. virtually

D. exceptionally

2. The ______ view in Britain and other Western countries associates aging with decline, dependency, isolation, and often poverty (property).

A. predominant

B. credulous

C. inclusive(<->exclusive)

D. sustainable

3. But gifts such as these cannot be awarded to everybody, either by judges or by the most ___ of governments./ reward rewarding [a gifted / talented person]

A. tough

B. demanding

C. diverse

D. benign (kind)

4. The foreman read the ______ of guilty fourteen times, one for each defendant.

A. prejudice

B. verification

C. verdict

D. punishment

5. They fear it could have a(n) ______ effect on global financial markets.

A. sizeable

B. adverse(negative)

C. beneficial

D. consequential

6. The UN threatened to ______ economic sanctions if the talks were broken off.

A. engage

B. pursue

C. abandon/ abundant

D. invoke

7. There are at least four crucial differences between the new ______ and the old government.

A. regime

B. hegemony

C. complex

D. federation/ fedal<->federal, confederate)

8. These questions ______ a challenge to established attitude of superiority toward the outside world.

A. evolve

B. constitute

C. tolerate

D. aroused

9. Because of this, a strong administrative ______ was needed to plan the use of scarce resources, organize production and regulate distribution.

A. apparatus

B. constitution

C. insistence

D. promotion

10. I learnt that there are no genuinely ______ animals in this area, all the animals were brought here from other places.

A. endangered

B. domesticated (tamed)

C. indigenous

D. extinct

B. Choose the hest word or expression from the list given for each Honk Use each word or expression only once and make proper changes where necessary.

point up by and large take in descent for good or ill

leave aside crystal clear die out endanger lay... at the door of

1. The book concludes with a review of the possible impact (influence) of more intimate computers for good or ill, in various areas of human life.

2. Moreover, it had become clear from the opinion polls that the unpopularity of the new tax was being laid at the door of the government which had introduced it, rather than the local authorities who were responsible for levying and collecting it.

3. This case gave the example of breaking someone's arm: that is a really serious injury, but one which is unlikely to endanger the victim's life.

4. Many of those who hold it live in poor areas and some are Colored, that is (=i.e./ namely), of mixed European and African descent.

5. This debate is important because that "the facts" are not

研究生英语阅读教程(基础级2版)课文01及其翻译分析解析

of the conversations follow a well-worn route from one topic to the next and back again, taking in most of human life. [worn-out]

7. But since agriculture forms the basis (base) of our industry, it was, by and large (on the whole), also an intensification of the crisis in the national economy in general.

8. Let us factors such as education, career structure, pay and

研究生英语阅读教程(基础级2版)课文01及其翻译分析解析

9. It is true that the exact nature of this issue is uncertain. However, one thing is crystal clear: it will not endanger the planet and its inhabitants. (habitat)

10. But if animal populations are too small, then they simply die out.

III. Cloze

There are ten blanks in the following passage. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer from the four choices given for each blank. [(criterion) criteria: (1)semantic/

(2)grammatical]

A simplified form of the English language based on 850 key words was developed in the late 1920s by the English psychologist Charles Kay Ogden and 1 by the English educator I. A. Richards. Known as Basic English, it was used mainly to teach English to non-English-speaking persons and 2 as an international language. The complexities of English spelling and grammar, however, were major 3 to the adoption of Basic English as a second language.

The fundamental principle of Basic English was that any idea, 4 complex, may be reduced to simple units of thought and expressed clearly by a limited number of everyday words. The 850-word primary vocabulary was 5 600 nouns (representing things or events), 150 adjectives (for qualities and _ 6 ), and 100 general "operational" words, mainly verbs and prepositions. Almost all the words were in 7 use in English-speaking countries. More than 60 percent of them were one-syllable words. The basic vocabulary was created 8 by eliminating numerous words which have the same or similar meanings and by 9 the use of 18 "basic" verbs, such as make, get, do, have, and be. These verbs were generally combined with prepositions, such as up, among, under, in, and forward. For example, a Basic English student would use the expression “go up”10 "ascend".

1. A. created B. publicized C. invented D. operated

2. A. proved B. provided C. projected D. promoted

3. A. advantages B. objections C. obstacles D. facileties

4. A. however B. whatever C. wherever D. whenever

5. A. comprised of B. made of C. composed of D. constituted of

6. A. personalities B. properties C. preferences D. perceptions/ perceive)

7. A. common B. ordinary C. average D. nonprofessional

8. A. in all B. at times C. for good D. in part/ partially)

9. A. experiencing B. exchanging C. excluding D. extending

10. A. in spite of =despite B. in favor of C. instead of D. in case of

II. Translation

Put the following passages into Chinese.

1. For English is a killer. It is English that has killed off Cumbric, Cornish, Norn and Manx. There are still parts of these islands where sizeable communities speak languages that were there before English. Yet English is everywhere in everyday use and understood by all or virtually all, constituting such a threat to the three remaining Celtic languages, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Welsh... that their long-term future must be considered... very greatly at risk.

因为英语是个杀手。正是英语造成了康瑞克、康尼施、诺恩、曼科斯等语言的消亡。在其中一部分岛上还有相当多的人使用在英语到来之前就已存在的语言。然而,英语在日常生

活中无处不在。所有的人或几乎所有的人都懂英语。英语对现存的凯尔特语——爱尔兰语、苏格兰盖尔语及威尔士语的威胁是如此之大,它们的未来岌岌可危。

2. He also associated such policies with a prejudice which he calls linguisticism (a condition parallel to racism and sexism). As Phillipson sees it, leading institutions and individuals within the predominantly "white" English-speaking world, have (by design or default) encouraged or at least tolerated—and certainly have not opposed—the hegemonic spread of English, a spread which began some three centuries ago as economic and colonial expansion.

同时,他认为这些政策和他称之为语言歧视(和种族歧视、性别歧视的情况类似)的偏见密切相关。在菲利普森看来,在以白人英语为主导的世界,最重要的机构和个人(有意或无意地)鼓励或者至少是容忍了(肯定没有反对)英语霸权主义式的传播。这种传播始于三个世纪之前的经济及殖民扩张。

3. By and large, we now view them as more or less benign, and often talk with admiration and appreciation about the cultures associated with them and what they have given to the world. And it is fairly safe to do this, because none of them now poses much of a threat.

总的来说,我们现在或多或少地把这些语言看作有利的语言。在谈到与之相关的文化及其为世界所做的贡献时,我们常怀有崇敬与赞赏,而且这样做也没有太大的风险,因为这些语言现在已不会构成什么威胁。

4. Yet many people see English as a blessing. Let me leave aside here the obvious advantages possessed by any world language, such as a large communicative network, a strong literary and media complex, and a powerful cultural and educational apparatus.

然而,许多人把英语看成是一件幸事。在此,我暂且不谈任何世界语言所具有的明显优势,例如广泛的通信网,强大的文化传媒体系,及强有力的文化教育机构。

5. English-speaking South Africans of British descent were not particularly strong in opposing the apartheid regime, and the black opposition, whose members had many languages, was at first weak and disorganized.

讲英语的南非英国后裔并不强烈反对种族隔离政权,而黑人反对力量,其成员讲多种语言,在初期软弱无力且缺乏组织。

6. Such symbolism suggests that the users of the world's lingua franca should seek to benefit as fully as possible from the blessing and as far as possible avoid invoking the curse.

这一象征表明这种世界通用语的使用者应充分发掘这一幸事为我们带来的好处,同时尽能避免招来灾难。

V. Oral Practice and Discussion

1. Why did Glanville Price say that English is a killer?

Because it has caused extinction of lots of small languages, such as Cumbric, Cornish, Norn and Manx, and it also threatens the existence of remaining Celtic languages.

2. According to McArthur, in what way is English different from other "world languages"?

Generally people view “world languages”, such as Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit as more or less benign, and often talk with admiration and appreciation about the cultures associated with them and what they have given to the world. And the author believes it is fairly safe to do this, because none of these languages now poses much of a threat. English, however, is another case. It is probably too close for us to be able to analyze and judge it as dispassionately as we may now discuss the influence of Classical Chinese on East Asia or of Classical Latin on Western Europe. We

may not have the last word on its influence until centuries later.

3. Why does McArthur say that English is "a curse for the indigenous peoples of Australia and something of a blessing for those in South Africa"?

When the first Europeans arrived in Australia, there were hundreds of languages. Now many of these languages have died out, many more are in the process of dying out, and these dead and dying languages have been largely replaced by either kinds of pidgin English or general Australian English. However, in South Africa the black opposition, whose members had many

languages, was at first weak and disorganized. It was English that helped opposition gain strength and organization. Instead of being a language of oppression, English became for them the key language of freedom and unity.

4. What should we do to make the most of English while avoiding the curse it may bring?

5. Do you think that teaching English to speakers of other countries is an act of linguistic imperialism?

The influence of the US and Britain on the rest of the world, past and present, cannot be denied, and the teaching of English can never be entirely neutral. Language is never a neutral vehicle for communication; the context comes with it, like it or not. English is a double-edged sword, so to speak. There is an element of cultural imperialism, given that—even if one doesn’t teach culture, per se(本质上)—culture is still nonetheless encoded in language in a very real sense.

On the other hand, the student either needs, wants or is required to learn English, and therefore learning English has some perceived benefit for the student.

Furthermore the spread of English has brought about the extinction of many minority languages. The question of whether teaching ESL or EFL can be considered linguistic imperialism is controversial.

VOCABULARY ITEMS

1.sizable: adj. fairly(very) large相当大的

2. virtually: adv. almost but not quite; nearly几乎,差不多; virture; virtual: a. ideal

3. constitute: v. to amount to; equal形成,等同于; constitution: n.

4. aggrandis(z)ment: n. increase in power or importance 扩张,增加, expansion; grand: great

5. predominantly: adv. mostly or mainly卓越地,支配地,主要地president, dominate(v)

6. default: n. failure to do sth.疏忽, default value.

7. hegemonic: adj. of the predominant influence of one nation over others 霸权的; gene; gen-; generator

8. benign: adj. tending to exert a beneficial influence; favorable有利的

9. dispassionately: adv. calmly; reasonably平心静气地,不带偏见地

10. verdict: n. decision or opinion given after testing or examining判断,裁决, verify; dictionary

11. straightforward: adj. plain; clear明确的,清清楚楚的,

12. aboriginal: adj. of races of people belonging to a region from the earliest times土著的, a man of humble origin;

13. adversely: adv. unfavorably不利地

14. indigenous: adj. native; originating in an area本土的,土生土长

15. endanger: v. to cause to be in a dangerous situation危害

endangered: adj. in danger of being damaged or destroyed濒于灭绝的

16. apparatus: n. structure or method of operation组织,机构

17. descent: n. hereditary derivation血统,遗传, ascend<->descend (v)

18. apartheid: adj. racial separateness种族隔离; discriminate; take the machine apart

19. regime: n. system of government or rule政权

20. vernacular: adj. native; commonly spoken by the members of a country or region本国语的,方言的

21. invoke: v. to make a particular idea, image, or feeling appear in people's minds引起, 造成;

22. point up to: emphasize强调, stress; point out

23. take in: to include包括

24. for good or (for) ill: whether the effect of a situation is good or harmful无论好坏

25. by and large: on the whole, generally总的来说,大体上; (be) at large.

26. die out: to become extinct死光,绝种

27. lay (put) sth at the door of...: to blame (sb. or sth.) for sth 归咎于…

28. leave aside: put aside, to make no discussion of a subject不谈论,把话题搁置一边, put away; ask for leave; put away

29. crystal clear: absolutely clear非常清楚的,显而易见的, obvious, apparent

NOTES

1. Cumbric: an ancient, long-extinct Celtic language of Northern England; Briton

2. Cornish: the Celtic language of Cornwall (a region of extreme southwest England), extinct since 1800, Anglosaxon

3. Norn: an extinct Norse dialect, spoken until early modern times in the Shetland and Orkney Islands and in parts of northern Scotland

4. Manx: the Gaelic language formerly spoken on the Isle of Man in England

5.Celtic languages: a subfamily of the Indo-European language family comprising the Britonic (including Welsh, Breton, Cumbrian, and Cornish) and the Goidelic (including Irish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic, and Manx) branches.

6. Anglophone: English-speaking

7. Sanskrit: (from samskrta "adorned, cultivated, perfected") the classical sacred and literary language of the Hindus of India

8. Nullarbor Plains: a region of south-central Australia south of the Great Victoria Desert and north of the Great Australian Bight. It is the site of a major rocket research center.

9. terra nullius: Terra nullius is a Latin expression meaning "empty land" or "no man's land" . The term refers to a 17th-century legal concept that permitted European colonial powers to assume control of land that was unclaimed. England relied on this principle to claim possession of the Australian continent.

10. pidgin English: English that is mixed with the words or grammar of another language

11. Coptic: an Afro-Asiatic language descended from ancient Egyptian, extinct as an everyday form of speech but surviving in the literature of the Coptic Church, sino-

12. Berber: a group of closely related languages spoken in North Africa

13. Zulu: a language of considerable literary importance in southeastern Africa

14. Ndebele: a language sometimes considered a dialect of Zulu.

15. Setswana: a dialect spoken by the Tswana people in Botswana

16. lingua franca: a language used between people whose main languages are different

17. yin and yang: two basic contrary forces in ancient Chinese thought "阴" 和"阳". READING SELECTION B

Jumble of Conflicting Language Taboos

By Timothy Kiefer

[1] The northwestern U.S. state of Washington made headlines in the early 2002 when it passed

a law prohibiting the use of the word "Oriental' in official contexts. Instead, the word "Asian" must be employed. The new law only bans the use of the word "Oriental" when the reference is to human beings. Therefore, one law which defines "minority group" to include "Orientals" will be changed to refer to "Asians", but another law which refers to "Oriental medicine" will be left unchanged. According to the law's sponsor, Korean-American state senator Paul Shin, the law was passed because the term "Oriental" is "pejorative terminology" and "offensive".

[2] "Oriental" derives from the Latin word orient, meaning "the rising sun" or "east". Because Asia is east of Europe, "Oriental" took on the meaning of "Asian". "The Orient", the "Far East" and "East Asia" are all noun phrases referring to the eastern section of the Asian continent. Ironically, the eastern part of Russia is usually excluded from the definitions of the Orient and East Asia, even though Russia extends farther to the east than any other country on the Eurasian landmass.

[3] According to Mr. Shin and other critics of the word Oriental, the word is offensive to Asians because it implies a Europe-centered view of the world. From the Pacific coast of the United States, where the state of Washington is located, the so-called "Orient" is to the west, not the east.

[4] The problem with this argument is that many commonly accepted geographic terms derive from outdated worldviews of this sort. My home state of Wisconsin is part of a region known as the "Middle West" or the "Midwest", yet I live in the eastern half of the United States. The term was invented because the United States was settled from east to west. For the settlers starting out from the Atlantic coast in the late 18th and early 19th century, everything west of the Appalachian Mountains was considered "the west".

[5] Not long ago the "Near East" was the accepted name for the area stretching from Egypt to Iran among Europeans and Americans; in recent decades it has been ousted by the "Middle East". Like "Far East" or "Orient", either term makes sense only if one takes Europe as the point of reference.

[6] And other languages are no better than English in this regard (aspect). The Arab world divides itself into the Maghrib (the West) and the Mashriq (the East) with the Sinai Peninsula as the border. Ironically, the division of the ancient world into Asia and Europe was probably borrowed by the Greeks from the Phoenicians, the ancestors of today's Lebanese; indeed, Europe and the Arabic Maghrib may well be derived from the same Semitic root, referring to the setting of the sun. And what can we say about a civilization like China, which unabashedly proclaims itself the "central country"?

[7] Perhaps it is too much to expect precision in such language issues. Whether or not there are good grounds (reasons) for considering "Oriental" offensive, over the past few decades the term has gradually fallen out of favor as a word to describe the people of Asia or Americans of Asian

ancestry. In today's English, the word "Oriental", when (it is) used to refer to a person, sounds old-fashioned at best and derogatory at worst.

[8] Nevertheless, while it may no longer be a good idea to refer to a person as an Oriental, it is still the standard usage in many phrases referring to things. For example, the term "Oriental carpet" refers to a type of carpet typically imported from Turkey or Central Asia. These carpets are extremely expensive (often costing thousands of dollars) and are highly prized (valued).

[9] The English language is full of other apparently (obviously) contradictory tendencies for words relating to ethnicity. "Chinatown", meaning a neighborhood where Chinese immigrants live, is proper English. But "Chinaman", meaning a Chinese person, became offensive in America during the first half of the 20th century, even though it is a direct translation of Zhongguoren. And "Frenchman", meaning a French person, is perfectly neutral English.

[10] The care Yankees must take in referring to Asians is as nothing (it is) compared with the delicacy required to get through the minefield of terms for Americans of sub-Saharan African ancestry. "Colored person" is now offensive, even though it was regarded as a polite term for much of the century after the U.S. Civil War (1861-1865). On the other hand, "person of color", meaning someone of any non-European race, is acceptable and, in some ideological circles, a favored phrase. "Negro" (the Spanish word for "black") gave way to "black" or "Black" in the 1960s, only to yield in turn to "Afro-American" in the 1980s and "African-American" or "African American" in the 1990s.

[11] And while one can speak of "black people" and "white people" or 'blacks" and "whites", one would be ill advised to speak of "red people" (American Indians—the "First Nations" of Canada, by the way) or "yellow people" (Asians). "Reds" is reserved for politics. The term "browns" is used occasionally to refer to Latin Americans of Indian or mixed Indian/European ancestry.

[12] What to make of (understand) this jumble of conflicting language taboos! One can draw two lessons: First, non-native speakers should use caution when (he or she is) speaking about ethnicity or race in English, as the English language is rife with linguistic traps in this area. Second, the number of offensive terms relating to other ethnic groups is a signal that the United States has never been fully comfortable with its status as a multiracial society. Culture is reflected in language, and the large number of pejorative ethnic terms in American English shows that the United States still suffers from ethnic and racial tensions. (942 words)

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Timothy Kiefer, who once taught in Beijing University, is an American lawyer.

Reading Comprehension

Answer the following questions or complete the following statements.

1. From the first sentence we learn that the law about the use of "Oriental" will be effective in _____.

A. northeastern U. S.

B. Washington D.

C. only

C. all the states of the U. S.

D. the state of Washington

2. Which of the following expressions is in violation of the new Law passed in 2002?

A. Oriental religions.

B. Oriental restaurants.

C. Oriental newcomers.

D. Oriental influence.

3. According to the author, when making geological terms

A. African countries are discriminated against

B. English speakers are scornful to other countries

C. people tend to take their own point as reference

D. people tend to accept the names as they were used long time ago

4. Critics of the word Oriental consider the word offensive to Asians because it suggests _____.

A. the negligence of the Russians

B. the bias against people in East Asia

C. an ill-attitude toward Asian cultures

D. a Europe-centered view of the world

5. According to the author, the word "Orient" _____.

A. should not be used any more

B. reflects people's view of the past

C. shows self-centeredness of the Asian people

D. reflects people's prejudice against the minorities

6. It can be inferred from the passage that "Appalachian Mountains" are _____.

A. in the east of the U.S.

B. in the south of the U. S.

C. in the Midwest of the U.S.

D. along the western coast of the U.S.

7. The phrase "good grounds" in Paragraph 7 means _____.

A. productive land

B. enough support

C. sensible reasons

D. scientific evidence

8. Which of the following is a pejorative expression in American English?

A. Frenchman.

B. Chinaman.

C. black people.

D. African American.

9. Compared with the choosing of terms referring to Asians, Americans are _____.

A. more careful when they use terms referring to African-Americans

B. less careful when they use terms referring to African-Americans

C. more careful when they use terms referring to Europeans

D. less careful when they use terms referring to Europeans

10. This selection is mainly concerned with _____.

A. racial problems in the U.S.

B. the difficulty in learning English

C. English expressions for ethnicity

D. the change of English language in the U.S.

VOCABULARY ITEMS

1. jumble:n. a confused or disordered mass杂乱

2. taboo:n. a social custom that certain words, subjects, or actions must be avoided禁忌

3. Oriental:adj. of eastern countries东方各国

4. employ:v. to put to use or service使用

5. sponsor:n. one who takes responsibility for a person or a thing赞助(者)

6. pejorative:adj. depreciatory; belittling轻蔑

7. landmass:n. a large unbroken area of land大陆

8. offensive:adj. causing offense to the mind or senses; disagreeable无礼,不敬的

9. oust:v. to take the place of 取代

10. unabashedly:adv. being not embarrassed不脸红,满不在乎

11. proclaim:v. to make known publicly宣告

12. ancestry:n. line of ancestors祖先

13. ethnicity:n. racial, national, or tribal traits, background, or association n.种族特点(渊源)

14. delicacy:n. need of careful treatment精细,微妙

15. minefield:n. sth. that is full of hidden dangers雷场

16. ideological:adj. of or relating to manner of thinking, ideas of a person, group, etc.意识形态

17. rife (with):adj. full (usually of bad things) 充满的

18. multiracial:adj. including or involving several different races of people多种族的

19. take on:to begin to have具有,呈现

20. at best (at most):in the most favorable case至多,充其量

21. at worst:in the worst way在最坏情况下

22. give way:to yield让路,让位

23. ill advised:not sensible or not wise没脑筋的,鲁莽的

NOTES

1. Eurasian: of or relating to the land mass comprising the continents of Europe and Asia

2. Appalachian Mountains: a long range of mountains in northeast America that go southwest from Quebec in Canada to Alabama in the U. S.

3. Maghrib: a region of northwest Africa, considered to include Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia

4. Mashriq: the region extending from the western border of Egypt through to the western border of Iran

5. Phoenician: a member of Semitic people of Phoenicia, prominent in Mediterranean history from c. 1100 to c. 625 B. C. as merchants and colonizers

6. Lebanese: people in Lebanon, a country of southwest Asia

7. Semitic: a family of languages, a branch of the Afro-Asian family, comprising a number of ancient and modern languages of southwest Asia and Africa

8. Yankee: a native or inhabitant of the U. S.

9. sub-Saharan: of the region of Africa south of the Sahara desert

课文参考译文

第一课A 世界英语:是福是祸?

汤姆·麦克阿瑟

[1] 2000 年,语言学家、威尔士人格兰维尔·普赖斯,在他编辑的《英国与爱尔兰的语言》中发表了如下的观点:

因为英语是个杀手。正是英语,导致坎伯兰语、康沃尔语、诺恩语和马恩语灭亡。在那些岛屿的部分地区,还有较大规模的群体讲比英语更古老的当地语言。但是,现在日常生活中,英语无处不在,人人―或者说几乎人人―都懂英语。英语威胁到那三种遗留的凯尔特语:爱尔兰语、苏格兰盖尔语和威尔士语,……所以必须意识到,从长远来看,这三种语言的未来……十分危险。(第141 页)在此几年前,1992 年,英国学者罗伯特·菲利普森(他如今在丹麦工作)在牛津大学出版了一本书,名为《语言领域的帝国主义》。在书中,他指出,主要的英语国家、世界范围内英语教学产业,尤其是英国文化委员会,实施的是语言扩张政策。他还把这种政策和他所称的“语言歧视”(这个情况类似于“种族歧视”、“性别歧视”)联系在一起。在菲利普森看来,以“白人”为主的英语世界中,起主导作用的机构和个人,或故意或无意,鼓励或者至少容忍英语大肆扩张,他们当然不反对英语的扩张。英语的扩张开始于大约三个世纪以前,最初表现形式是经济与殖民扩张。

[2]菲利普森本人为英国文化委员会工作过几年。和他一样,还有一些母语为英语的学者,也试图强调英语作为世界语言的危险。在过去儿十年里,人们从三个群体的角度,就英语的国际化进行了广泛的讨论。第一个群体是ENL 国家,英语是母语(这个群体也叫“内部圈”) ;第二个群体是ESL 国家,英语是第二语言(“外部圈”) ; 第三个群体是EFL 国家,英语是外语(“扩展圈”)。20 世纪80 年代,这些词语开始流行。从那时起,这第三圈实际上己扩展到全球范围。

[3]从来没有像英语这样的语言,这既有利也有弊。曾经有许多“世界语言”, 例如:阿拉伯语、汉语、希腊语、拉丁语和梵语。总的来说,我们现在认为这些语言比较好,经常以赞美、感激的语气谈论与它们相关的文化以及它们给世界带来的变化。我们这样的态度,没有什么不妥,因为那些语言现在都不构成严重威胁。

[4]我们现在可以冷静地讨论古汉语对东亚或古拉丁语对西欧的影响。但是,我们与英语关系太紧密,无法同样冷静地分析、评价英语。在对英语的审判中,陪审团还没有露面,可能需要好几个世纪才能做出裁决。但即使如此,值此欧洲语言年,我们可以提出这个问题:普赖斯和菲利普森就我此时使用的语言对我们提出的警告是否有道理。

[5]当然,不难发现有这种情形:人们也许咒骂英语。澳大利亚就是一个例子。澳大利亚常被看成是不折不扣的英语国家。到那里的第一批欧洲人经常使用拉丁语描述、谈论这个地方。“澳大利亚”这个词就是拉丁语。显然,当时没有人想到只称它为“南方土地”(这是“澳大利亚”的含义)。此外,在澳大利亚南部,有一大片土地叫“纳拉伯平原(Nullarb Plains ) ”。其中,第一个词听起来像土著语言,但Nullarb 是拉丁语,意思是“没有树木”。最重要的是,早期的定居者把这个大陆称为“terra nullius ”。1999 年Encarta world English Dictionary 是这样解释“terra nullius " 这个拉丁词组的

……指这个想法和法律概念:第一批欧洲人到达澳大利亚时,这片土地不属于任何人,因此可以随意定居。这种观点已被判定是没有法律效力的。

但是,只是最近才这样判定的。欧洲人来的时候,澳大利亚人口稀少―不过有人居住―无论从哪个海岸到哪个海岸。当时部落和语言都有儿百种,其中许多语言现在已经灭亡了,而正在灭亡的更多。这些死亡的和正在死亡的语言,大都被多种混杂英语或者通用的澳大利亚

英语所取代。取决于你的立场,这或者是令人哀伤的损失,或者是进步的代价。

[6]但是,同时有一个问题:土著语言的灭亡能完全归咎于英语吗?最早发现澳大利亚的欧洲人是荷兰人,他们的语言本可以成为殖民与定居中使用的语言。任何定居者的语言都可能有同样的作用。例如,如果蒙古人能维持他们幅员辽阔的欧亚帝国,蒙古语可能就会成为世界语言,传播到澳大利亚。再例如,如果历史有一些变化,那么今天世界语言可能是阿拉伯语。如今,阿拉伯语在西亚和北非是一种强大的语言,影响到许多其他较小的语言,包括科普特语和柏柏尔语。西班牙语对所谓“拉丁”美洲的土著语言产生了消极影响,而俄语从欧洲传到西伯利亚太平洋地区。如果英语是个祸害,是个杀手,那可能仅仅是因为任何大的语言都可能会影响、威胁到较小的语言。

[7]但许多人认为英语是有益的。我这里暂不讨论任何世界语言具有的明显优势,例如:交流网络庞大、文学与传媒体系发达、文化与教育机构强大。让我们看看与此不同的问题:政治、公平与平等。这里我用南非为例来说明。十年前,南非结束了种族隔离为原则的统治。在南非语(这种语言来源于荷兰语)中,这种制度叫" apartheid ”。出现这种制度,是因为欧洲血统的南非人群体―血统主要是荷兰的欧洲定居者―认为自己优于他们建立殖民地的当地人。

[8]说英语的、英国裔的南非人不是非常积极反对种族隔离制度。黑人的反对力量中,成员使用多种语言,他们起初缺少力量与组织。但是,使这种反对力量增强、更有组织的语言是英语。对于他们来说,英语成为自由与团结的主要语言,而不是用司必来压迫的语言。今天,南非有11 种官方语言―英语、南非语和9 种当地语言,包括祖鲁、恩德贝勒语和塞茨瓦纳语。但这9 种语言中,南非黑人使用(或准备使用)哪一种作为本国通用语言呢?除了母语之外,他们希望子女还能熟练讲、写哪种呢?答案是,哪一种也不是。他们所希望的是英语,而且他们特别希望有与非洲相适宜的英语。

[9]所以,对于澳大利亚土著人来说,是个祸害,而对南非的土著人来说,却有一些好处……

[10]那么,在当今全球化而多样性受到威胁的世界里,我们应该怎样看待英语?在我看来,答案似乎很清楚。与很多事物一样,英语有时是福、有时是祸―对于个人、群体、国家甚至国家联盟,都是如此。东亚“阴”、“阳”的象征意义也许能很好地说明这个问题。阴中有阳,阳中有阴。两者虽相反,但共存。就我们这里的问题来说,指的是在同一交流圈内。这种象征意义说明,使用世界通用语言的人应该努力尽可能用其利而避其弊。

第一课B 一大堆相矛盾的语言忌讳

蒂莫西·基弗

[1] 2002 年初,位于美国西北部的华盛顿州引起媒体轰动。当时,该州通过法律,禁止在官方场合使用“Oriental (东方的)”这个词语。而应该使用“Asian (亚洲的)”这个词。这个新法律只禁止用“Oriental (东方的)”指人。所以,有一个法律提到“少数民族”包括“orientals (东方人)" ,这就要改成“AsianS (亚洲人)" ; 而另一法律提到“Oriental medicine (东方医学)”则不变。该法律的提案人是韩裔美国人、州参议员保罗·申,他说这个法律通过的原因是," Oriental (东方的)”是“贬义词”, “令人厌恶”。

[2] " oriental ”来源于拉丁语的“。riens " ,意思是“升起的太阳’,或“东方,,。因为亚洲位于欧洲以东," oriental”就意为“亚洲的”。“The orient ”、“Far East ”

和" East Asia 了这三个名词词组,都是指亚洲大陆的东部。具有讽刺意味的是,俄罗斯东部通常不在东方和东亚所指的含义之内,尽管俄罗斯向东部延伸范围比其他任何欧亚大陆的国家都远。

[3]申先生和其他批评“Oriental ”这个词的人认为,这个词令亚洲人厌恶,因为它暗示出一种以欧洲为中心的世界观。在美国的太平洋海岸,即华盛顿州所在位置,所谓的“Oriental (东方)”是在西面,不在东面。

[4]这个论点的问题是:有许多被广泛接受的地理词汇来源于这类过时的世界观。我的家乡是威斯康星州,那里属于被称为“中西部”的地区。但我住在美国东部地区。出现这个词语,是因为人们是自东向西定居美国的。对于18 世纪末、19 世纪初从大西洋海岸开始定居的人,任何在阿帕拉契亚山以西的东西都被看成是“西部”。

[5]不久以前,欧洲人和美国人还愿意使用“Near East (近东)”这个词来指从埃及到伊朗的这片区域。近儿十年来," Middle East (中东)”己经取而代之。这两个词语和“Far East (远东)”或“orient (东方)”一样,只有把欧洲作为参照物时才有意义。 [6]在这方面,其他语言和英语一样糟糕。阿拉伯世界以西奈半岛为界,把自己分成Mashrib (西方)和Mashriq (东方)两部分。具有讽刺意味的是,把古代世界分成亚洲和欧洲两个部分,这可能是希腊人从胖利基人(今天黎巴嫩人的祖先)那里借用来的。其实,“欧洲”和阿拉伯的“Mashrib ”很可能来源于闪米特族的同一个词根,意思是“太阳落下”。中国满不在乎地自称是“中央之国”,对于这样的文明,我们能说什么呢?

[7]在这样的语言问题上要求精确,这或许有些过分。无论认为“Oriental (东方人)”一词令人厌恶,这是否有道理,在过去的几十年中,该词己经渐渐不被用来指亚洲人或亚裔美国人了。在今天的英语中,用“Oriental (东方人)”一词来指人时,往好了说,听起来过时,往坏了说,则有贬义。

[8]然而,虽然说一个人是“东方人”也许不再妥当,但该词在指物的很多短语中仍是标准用法。例如,“东方地毯”指通常从土耳其或中亚进口的地毯,它们的价格极贵(通常是数千美元),受到青睐。

[9]英语中还有许多其他显然具有矛盾倾向的、与种族相关的词。“中国城( Chinatown ) ”意思是中国移民居住的地区,是个恰当的词语。但是,用Chinaman 指中国人,这在20 世纪上半叶的美国,可就令人厌恶,尽管该词是从“中国人”一词直接翻译来的。而“Frenchman " ,意思是法国人,则完全是个中性的词语。

[10]美国佬在说到亚洲人时必须采取的小心态度,与说到撒哈拉沙漠以南非洲人后裔的美国人时所需要的精心考虑相比,那算不了什么,因为说到后者时就像走过地雷阵。“Colored Person (有色人)”一词现在令人厌恶,然而在美国国内战争( 1861 一1865 )之后一百年中的大部分时间内,却被认为是个文明的词语。而另一方面," person of Col 。:(有色人)" ,指任何非欧洲种族的人,却是可以接受的词语,而且在某些意识形态的圈子内,是一个受欢迎的词语。用来指美国黑人的“Negr 。”(西班牙语“黑”的意思),在20 世纪60 年代让位于“black (黑人)”或者“Black , , ,但到了80 年代又被“Afro 一American " (非洲裔美国人)所取代,到了90 年代又让位于" African 一American (非洲裔美国人)”或者“African American ”。

[11]人们可以说“黑人”和“白人”,但若有人建议说“红人”(美洲印第安人―顺便说一下,他们是加拿大的“第一民族”)或者“黄人”(亚洲人),这可不好。“Reds (红人)”只是用于政治问题,但“Browns (棕人)”有时却用来指祖先是印第安人或是印第安人与欧洲人混血的拉美人。

[12]我们怎么看待这一大堆相矛盾的语言忌讳呢?可从中了解两点:首先,母语不是英

语的人用英语谈论民族和种族时必须谨慎,因为在这一领域,英语充满着陷阱。第二,与其他种族相关的、冒犯性的词汇数量多,说明美国从来没有完全心甘情司孙愿地接受多种族社会的状况。语言反映了文化,美国英语中贬义的、与种族有关的词汇数量很大,表明美国仍然存在着民族、种族间的紧张关系。