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新东方英语四六级--六级考试语法

第二节考试语法

1、测试范围——时态、语态、虚拟语气、连词的使用、非谓语动词、介词、比较级、一致

关系、语序等。

2、解题的基本原则和方法

[例1]:By the end of this month, we surely a satisfactory solution to the problem.

A) have found B) will have found C) will be finding D) are finding [例2]:It is essential that .

A)the train leave on time to London.

B)the train leaves on time to London.

C)the train will leave on time to London.

D)the train is leaving on time to London.

[例3]:Weather ,the picnic will be held as scheduled.

A) permits B) permitting C) will permit D) should permit

[例4]:He couldn’t win; .

A)so that he decided to lose gracefully

B)because he decided to lose gracefully

C)as soon as he decided to lose gracefully

D)so he decided to lose gracefully

3、语法测试题的题型及应对策略

a) 命题变化多端,必须统观全局

[例1]:The leaders were seen in the hall but they didn’t make known the problems .

A. assembling…discussing

B. assembled…discussing

C. assembling…discussed D.be assembled…discussed

[例2]:Not everyone has the chance of doing something heroic or ,but every man wants his life to the full.

A.to become great…do more to live

B.becoming great…doing more living

C.becoming great…to do more to live

D.becoming great…to do more to have lived

[例3]:Ididn’t actually see them the safe(保险箱),but heard them about that.

A. open…talk C. open…talking

C. to open…talk

D. to open…talking

[例4]:Output of cars this month is of the same period of last year.

A. 10 percent higher than that

B higher 10 percent than that

C. 10 percent higher than those

D. higher 10 percent than those

b)结合题干分析考点,不要只看选项

[例]:The kids dare not walk on the ice. Neither to skate on it .

A. they dare

B. dare they

C. do they dare

D. daren’t they

c)题中出现分隔,整体分析全句

[例1]:Great Salt Lake is fed by freshwater streams, which about four or five times as salty as the ocean.

A. is

B. are

C. were

D. have been

[例2]:Phonetics(语音体系)is as much an essential part of a language as its grammar and vocabulary.

A. is

B. are

C. has

D. do

d)题目结构复杂,分清主从层次

[例]:Radar equipment is capable of determining by radio echoes the presence of objects, their direction and range and the character.

A. recognizes C. recognizing

B. is recognizing D. is recognized by

e)答案难以确定,解题宜用排除法

[例1]Iwas trying to read the directions and absurd.

A. which was confused C. which were confusing

B. that was confused D. they were confusing

[例2]________that you’d better pay more attention to the opinions of the experts on it.

A. As if

B. As for

C. As yet

D. So as to

4、语法测试题的应试技巧

A、语法考点

一、特殊动词的用法

1、感觉动词常用的感觉动词有hear、see、feel、smell、find 等,主要测试二方面内容:

a)时态。

b)svoc结构中宾语补足的成分。

See sb do sth/ see sb doing sth

[例]When you were talking to the policeman, I saw a teenager .

A.getting on your car and driving off

B.got on your car and drive off

C.getting on your car and drive off

D.get on your car and drive off

2、使动词如make、let、have、get、keep等。

Have/make/let + something + done

have/make/let + someone + do

get + someone + to do 或get + something + done

keep + someone + doing/ done

[例1]The manager promised to keep me of how our business was going on.

A. to be informed

B. on informing

C. informed

D. informing

[例2]The students were made in the dormitories after 11 p.m..

A. staying

B. to stay

C. stay

D. stayed 3、歧义动词如remember、forget、stop、regret、try、mean 等。

“remember to do sth”意为“记住去做……”

“remember doing sth”意为“记得做过……”

“regret to do sth”表示“遗憾……”

“regret doing sth”则表示“后悔……”

“forget to do sth”表示“忘记去做……”

“forget doing sth”表示“忘记做了……”

“stop to do sth”表示“停下去做……”

“stop doing sth”表示“停下做……”

“try to do sth”表示“……努力、企图做某事”

“try doing sth”表示“试着做,试验、试一试某种办法”“mean to do sth”表示“打算做……”

“mean doing sth”表示“意味做……”

[例1]Remember to the post office and post the letter for me on your way to school.

A. going

B. to go

C. gone

D. go [例2]I remember my father me to the beach when I was a small boy.

A. to take

B. takes

C. taking

D. take

[例3]Do you remember to Prof. Smith during your last vacation?

A. to be introduced

B. having introduced

C. being introduced

D. to have introduced [例4]I regret you that materials you ordered are out of stock.

A. telling

B. having told

C. to tell

D. told

[例5]I regret hard at school.

A. to have worked

B. not having worked

C. to work

D. having not worked

二、非谓语动词

1)动词不定式——只能接不定式做宾语的动词有:decide, hope, learn, manage(打算), offer, prepare, agree, refuse, fail(未), pretend, happen(碰巧), promise, plan(打算,计划)

a)测试作宾语时不定式带补语的结构

这种结构的常用动词有:find、think、consider、make 等,基本句型是:

v. + it + adj + to do

[例]Do you consider wise to ignore him?

A. it is

B. it to be

C. it as being

D. it

b)不定式在svoc句型中的应用

解题的关键是记住带不定式作宾语补足语的动词,如:ask、tell、allow、enable、expect、get、require、request、cause、urge、want、force、order等。

[例]They don’t allow in the library, but they allow people in the restroom.

A. to smoke…to smoke

B. smoking…smoking

C. to smoke…smoking

D. smoking…to smoke c)不定式作定语的用法

(1)与其他非谓语形式或谓语形式的区别

[例]The question tomorrow is whether income tax should be increased.

A. to be debated

B. debates

C. debating

D. debated

(2)介词的使用

[例]The boy’s father bought him a large toy train .

A. which to play with

B. to play with it

C. to play with

D. at which to play

d)不定式的时态、语态

不定式完成时表示不定式动作发生在主句谓语动作之前,不定式被动语态表示不定式的逻辑主语是其动作的承受者,be soory、be glad、seem或say、find、hear、report等动词的被动语态后加不定式完成时态较为常见。

[例1]The new power station is reported within three years.

A. to have completed

B. to have been completed

C. having been completed

D. to complete

[例2]Mr. Johnson preferred heavier work to do.

A. to be given

B. to be giving

C. to have given

D. having given

e)不定式作状语

[例1]The police inspector spoke to the little girl kindlt her.

A. not to frighten

B. in order to not frighten

C. so as not to frighten

D. so not as to frighten

[例2]He moved away from his parents, and missed

them_____ enjoy the exciting life in New York.

A. too much to

B. enough to

C. very much to

D. much so as to

2)动名词

a)只能接动名词做宾语的动词有:

miss, mind, enjoy, suggest, practise, persist, quit, admit, appreciate, deny, escape, complete, fulfil, acknowledge, favour, delay, postpone, finish, avoid, prevent, recall, recollect, risk, consider b)只能接动名词的一些常用句型\结构:

It’s no good/use/fun (in) doing sth…

There is no need/point/use/sense (in) doing sth.

be busy/be worth doing sth.

have difficulty/trouble/problem (in) doing sth…

spend/waste time (in) doing sth…

can’t help doing sth…

confess to, object to, be opposed to, look forward to, contribute to, be used to, be devoted to, be dedicated to, lead to, refer to, equal to, stick to, belong to, thanks to, be accustomed to doing sth

c)既可接动名词又可接动词不定式做宾语的有:

①接动词不定式和动名词作宾语而意义差别不大的动词:

love, like, dislike, hate, begin, start, continue, intend,

prefer, propose, etc.

②可跟动词不定式和动名词作宾语但意义有差别的动词:

歧义动词中已讲。

③need, want, require, deserve + 动名词/+不定式被动

态,表被动意义。

The pencil needs sharpening.(to be sharpened)

[例1]Jean did not have time to go to the concert last night because she was busy for her examination.

A. to prepare

B. preparing

C. to be prepared

D. being prepared

[例2]I appreciate to your home.

A. to be invited

B. to have invited

C. having invited

D. being invited

[例3]I had to postpone to his plan to a later date.

A. me listening

B. myself listening

C. my listening

D. mine listening

3)分词

新东方英语四六级--六级考试语法

a)现在分词和过去分词的区别:

eg: Seeing these photos, I could not help thinking of my childhood days in Los Angeles.

eg: Not knowing what to do, she went to the godfather for help.

eg: Frustrated, he went back to his hometown.

B)分词作状语

①分词和分词短语作状语时,表示时间、原因、条件、让步、

和伴随情况,在表示时间、原因、条件、让步、方式时,通常可以换为相应的状语从句,表示方式和伴随情况时可以转换成一个并列的谓语成分。

Seeing the teacher entering to room, the students stood up.

(When the students saw the teacher entering the room, they stood up.)

Heated, ice will be changed into water. (When it is heated, ice will be changed into water.)

②分词作状语与主语的关系

▲现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是主动关系。

Not knowing what to do , he went to his parents for help.

▲过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语的承受的动作,它们之间的关系是被动关系。

Give more attention , the trees could have grown better.

▲分词作状语时前面可用连词if, while, when, once, unless 等引导的状语从句,若其主语与主句的主语相同时,可

保留该连词,其余部分则简化为分词短语,相当于省略

的状语从句。

If falling ill, I’ll see my doctor.

Even though given every opportunity, they would not try.

[例1]with the size of the whole earth, the highest

mountain doesn’t seem high at all.

A.When compared

B. Compare

C.While comparing

D. Comparing

[例2]neglecting our education, my father sent my brother and me to a summer school.

A. Accused of B. That he was accused of

C. Accusing of

D. To be accused of

另外,独立分词结构作状语也是十分常见的测试项目,常见题型有二种:

①句子开头为“名词或代词+”,或“with+名

词或代词+”,

[例1]Anew technique , the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent.

A. working out

B. having worked out

C. having been worked out

D. to have worked out

[例2]With the guide the way, we set off on foot into the dark night.

A. leading

B. led

C. to lead

D. leads

③题句开头逗号前全部空缺,四个选择项中包括独立结构、

简单句,解题时可以直接排队选择项中的简单句,然后根据分词与逻辑主语之间的关系确定分词的正确形式。[例], the next problem was how to make a good plan.

A. The decision having made

B. The decision had been made

C. The decision was made

D. The decision having been made

c)分词做定语

[例]Some of the questions the students were very difficult to answer.

A. raised by

B. raising by

C. to be raised by

D. had been raised by

The shower being over, we continued…

三、情态动词

1、情态动词的完成式

1)must have done——表示对过去的事情较有把握的、肯定性的推测,常译为“一定,准是,肯定”,其否定形式是can’t/couldn’thave done,意为“决

不可能,不太可能”。

e.g. S ince the ditch is full of water, it must have

rained last night.

2)should/ought to have done——表示过去应该做的却没有做,常含有后悔、责备、埋怨的口吻,意

为“本应该……”,“应该……就好了”;

e.g. W ith all the work finished, I should have gone to your birthday party last night.

3)shouldn’t/ought not to have done——表示过去不该做的事却给做了,也常含有责备、不满之意,意

为“本不该……”。

e.g. Y ou shouldn’t have gone back to work yesterday without the doctor’s permission.

4)may/might have done——表示对过去的事情的推测,但不十分有把握,意为“可能,或许已经……”。

e.g. A traffic accident happened yesterday and a driver may have been hurt.

5)could have done——表示过去有可能或有能力做某事,而实际未做、未能实现的事;有时也表示轻

度批评,意为“本来可以……,完全可以……”。

e.g. The gas leakage could have been avoided if the

gas company took immediate measures after the

warning call.

6)needn’t have done——表示过去做了某事,但没有

做的必要,意为“其实没有必要……”。

e.g. I needn’t have bought all that wine——only three people came.

2、可作情态动词用的短语

would rather, would sooner, would (just) as soon, had rather, had better, had sooner, cannot but, may/might as well

[例1]You all those calculations! We have a computer to do that sort of thing.

A. needn’t have done

B. must not have done

C. shouldn’t have done

D. can’t have done

[例2]I to him because he phoned me shortly afterwards.

A. ought to have written

B. must have written

C. couldn’t have written

D. needn’t have written

[例3]You those letters. Why didn’t you?

A. should post

B. must have posted

C. should have posted

D. ought to post

四、比较级

1)倍数的比较结构

[例1]She didn’t regret paying 200 dollars for the bookstore.

As a matter of fact, she would

gladly have paid for it .

A. as much twice

B. much as twice

C. as twice much

D. twice as much [例2]Staying in a hotel is renting a room in a

dormitory for a week.

A. twice much as

B. as much as twice

C. twice as much as

D. as much twice as 2)连词的选择

[例]It’s more important that she should be free she

should live aluxuriouslife,

A. than

B. that

C. more than

D.

than that

3)比较对象的一致性

[例1]I like watching TV to the cinema.

A. more than to go

B. than going

C. more than going

D. rather than to go

[例2]His salary as a bus driver is much higher

than .

A. a teacher

B. those of teacher

C. that of a teacher

D. a doctor

4)would sooner…than, would as soon as(宁可…而不愿)I’d sooner/rather resign than take part in such dishonest deals. 5)more of A than B(与其说像B,倒不如说更像A)

The newcomer is more of a salesman than a scholar. 新来的人

与其说是位学者,不如说是位推

销员。

6)as much A as B(不仅B,也同样A)

The fault may be as much with the whole society as with the

young people.

not so much A as B(与其说A,不如说B)

The selfish man did that not so much for his wife as for himself. 这位自私的人那样做与其说是为他妻子,倒不如说是为了自

己。

8)more than + adj. / adv. /v. / n.(不只是,非但…)

He is more than anxious about it. 对此他不只是着急而已。He more than complained, he threw the whole book of rules at

me .

9)more than to do sth.(很…而不至于…)

Kate knew better than to go with such a rude man.

You are wiser than to believe his story.

1、特殊比较级

Be inferior, superior, junior, senior, prior, posterior to

[例]She would make a doctor far superior to the average. [例]He is 7 years junior to me.

五、代词

1.both、neither、either、all、none、each、any

上述不定代词除none之外,都可以作定语;both、all后接复数名词,neither、either、each、any后只跟单数名词。

both、neither、either只涉及两个人或物,而all、none、each、any由指三者或三者以上的人或物,作代词时,其后都可跟“of +复数名词或复数代词”。

both作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式,neither、either、each作主语时,谓语动词用单数。both的否定形式是neither、all的否定形式是none。

[例]She tried of her keys in the door but worked.

A. all…neither

B. every…all

C. either…none

D. all…none

[例]“Will you have tea or coffee?”“, thank you, I’ve ju st had some tea”.

A. Either

B. Both

C. Neither

D. Any

2. other、another

[例]We had a party last month, and it was a lot of fun, so let’s have one this month.

A. another

B. more

C. the other

D. other

六、介词

1、固定搭配

[例]The bridge was named the hero who gave his life for the cause of the people.

A. after

B. with

C. by

D. from

[例]The criminal always paid cash so the police couldn’t track him down.

A. on

B. by

C. for

D. in

[例]She accused the man breaking into her house.

A. of

B. for

C. at

D. with

2、成语介词

[例]the flood, the ship would have reached its destination on time.

A. In case of

B. In spite of

C. Because of

D. But for

[例]his great wealth, he always remained a man of simple tastes.

A. Except for

B. With regard to

C. Despite

D. Although

[例]Some areas, their severe weather conditions, are hardly populated.

A. due to

B. in spite of

C. but for

D. except for

B、句法考点

一、时态、语态

(1)分析选择项中动词时态构成形式是否正确,将错误的予以排除。

e.g. What’s the matter with you? You pale.

A. are looking

B. look

C. have looked

D. looked

e.g. I a glass while I the dinner.

A. broke…cooked

B. broke…was cooking

C. was breaking…cooked

D. was breaking…was cooking

(2)利用标志时态的信息词。

e.g. Since then I the mail.

A. are expecting

B. have expected

C. was expecting

D. have been expecting

e.g. By the time you get to Beijing tomorrow, I for Shanghai.

A. am leaving

B. shall have left

C. will leave

D. have already left

(3)时态测试的另一方面是时态一致,即主从复合句中时态配合

a)主句谓语动词是过去时,测试宾语从句中谓语动词的时态,依照时态一致原则判断。e.g. She was told that the examination on Friday.

A. will be given

B. has been given

C. would be given

D. is given

e.g. The teacher told the children that water at 100℃.

A. boils

B. was boiling

C. boiled

D. was boiled

b)在由时间状语从句构成的复合句中,测试主句或者从句谓语动词的时态。从句是现在时;

主句必须是现在时或将来时,从句是过去时,主句必须是过去时,在包含when, as soon as, before, after, until等复合句中,如主句、从句动作发生在不同时间,先发生的用过去完成时。

e.g. When I see Jean in the street, she always at me.

A. smiled

B. has never been

C. had been nev

D. smiles

e.g. As my mother here before, I had to meet her at the station.

A. had never been

B. had been never

C. has never been

D. never was (4)利用频度副词确定时态。常用的有:always, often, never, ever, usually, rarely, occasionally,

hardly, just等。

e.g. We our breakfast when an old man came to the door.

A. just had had

B. just have had

C. have just ha

D. had just had Band 4常见考点:

1、过去完成时(had + done)

1)过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作以前已完成了的动作。

The facory had fulfilled its year ly plan of production by last Novermber.

We had not thought of the soulution until gave some hints.

2)过去完成时可以表示由过去某一时间开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作,常和for(有时可省去)或since引导的从句连用。

It rained yesterday after it had been dry for many months.

3)过去完成时常用以下固定句型

hardly / scarcely /barely+过去完成型(倒装形式)+when过去时

Hardly had arrived when I had a new problem to cope with.

no sooner+过去完成时(倒装形式)+than+过去时

No sooner had the words been spoken than he realized that the should have remained silent.

by(the end of )+过去时间主句谓语动词用过去完成时

By the end of that year,Jack had collected more than a thousand foreign stamps.

2.完成时:(will/shall+have done)

表示在将来某一时间以前已完成的动作。

By this time tomorrow you will have arrived in Shanghai.

When yo u come tonight at eight o’clock,I shall have written my report.

3.完成进行时态:(has/have+been doing)(had been+doing)

表示动作在现在或过去某一时间以前开始,并延续到那个现在或过去的进间,而且可能还要继续下去。

It has been raining for three hours.

He told me he had been waiting for me for two hours

4.由after ,as ,as soon as ,before,once,until,when while引导的时间状语从句和由as longas , if , unless等引导的条件状语从句中,若主句用将来时,则从句要用一般现在时表示将来。5.在This (That It )is (was)the first(second…)thim引导的that 从句往往用完成时态。

This is the first time(that) I’ve drunk Californian champagne.

There was a knock at the door.It was the second time someone had interrupted me that evening.

6.一般将业时的替代形式:

1)be going to do sth.在口语中广泛使用,表示准备做或即将发生的事情;

I’m going to buy a new house when we save enough money.

2)be to do sth.表示计划安排将要做的事;

There is to be a rail strike on July 18th.

3)be about ot do sth 表示即将发生的事情

We are about to start.

4)bedue to do sth.表示预先确定了的、必定要发生的事;

His book is due to be published in October.

5)be going/coming/leaving/starting/arriving/returning等动词的进行时可表示计划或安排即将要发生的事情。

They are leaving for Hong Kong next month.

(5)语态的对策:a)确定选择项中的动词是及物动词还是不及物动词,把不及物动词的被动语态予以排除。b)判断被动词语态的构成形式是否正确,把错误的予以排除。c)注意题句空格后是否有宾语(动作承受者),如没有宾语则谓语动词必须用被动语态。d)利用时态标志词确定被动语态的正确时态。注意:被动语态没有完成进行时和将来进行时态。