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Book1 Unit1

1.△ survey

◎/'s?:ve? / n.[C] 调查;测验

Do the following survey.做以下调查。(P1)

do/conduct/carry out a survey进行调查

We had better make a survey of the market.我们最好做个市场调查。

A recent survey shows that most of the students love football courses.


◎/s?'ve? / vt. 做(民意)调查

lt was surveyed that 45 percent of people supported Donald Trump last month.据调查,上个月45%的人支持唐纳德·特朗普。

Half of the people surveyed in 16 countries said they go first to their closest friend to share their feelings. 在16个国家里,被调查的那些人中有一半说,他们首先找他们最亲近的朋友诉说自己的情感。

2. add up 合计,加起来

Add up your score and see how many points you get.




3.upset /?p'set/

◎adj. 心烦意乱的;不安的;不适的

Your friend comes to school very upset.你的朋友来上学时心情很不好。(P1)

be/feel upset about sth.为……心烦意乱/难过

He felt upset about losing the money. 丢了钱,他感到难过

I was greatly upset about the news.听到那个消息,我感到很难过。

◎vt. (upset, upset, upsetting)


It upsets us that she is always complaining.让我们心烦的是她总是在抱怨。

upset one's stomach使某人的肠胃不适

Eating fish sometimes upsets my stomach.吃鱼有时让我的胃不舒服。


He stood up suddenly, upsetting the soup.他突然站起来,结果把汤打翻了。

The sudden change of the weather upset our plan. 天气的突变打乱了我们的计划。

4.ignore /?ɡ'n?:/ vt. 不理睬;忽视

She will ignore the bell and go somewhere quiet to calm him down. 你会不顾铃声,去个安静的地方让你的朋友平静下来。(P1)

The best way to deal with an impolite person is to ignore him.


I said hello to him, but he ignored me completely.我向他问好,但是他完全不理我。Ignoring the differences between the two research findings will be one of the worst mistakes you make. 忽视了这两个研究发现之间的差异是你犯的最严重的错误。

ignore traffic rules / one's advice忽视交通规则/某人的建议


(1)ignorant /??gn?r?nt/ adj. 无知的;愚昧的

Never make your students feel ignorant.


be ignorant of/about sth.对……无知, 不知道

He is ignorant of/about modern technology. 他对现代科技一无所知。

(2)ignorance /??gn?r?ns/ n.无知;愚昧

ignorance of/about sth.对……无知, 不知道

There is so much ignorance of/about mental illness.


in ignorance of sth.不知道某事

He is in ignorance of his serious illness now. 他现在不知道自己严重的病情。

out of ignorance 出于无知

Children often behave badly out of ignorance. 儿童往往出于无知而不守规矩。

6. calm /kɑ:m/

◎vt. & vi. (使)平静;(使)镇定

calm sb./sth. down 使……平静、安静或镇定下来

He took a deep breath to calm himself down.他深吸了一口气使自己平静下来。

calm down平静;安静;镇定

After I calmed down, I played the piano better.我镇定下来后,钢琴弹得好多了。

◎adj. 平静的;镇静的;沉着的

The sky is blue, and the sea is calm.天空碧蓝,海上风平浪静。

keep/stay/remain calm保持镇静

He can always keep calm, whatever happens.不论发生什么事情,他总能保持镇静。


7.have got to 不得不;必须

You will tell your friend that you've got to go to class. 你会告诉你的朋友你得去上课。(P1)


8. concern /k?n's?:n/



The boy's poor performance at school concerned his parents.



Don’t interfere in what doesn’t concern you. 别管与自己无关的事。

concern oneself with / in / about sth. 关心某事/ 参与某事

She concerns herself with social welfare. 她从事社会福利工作。


①[U] 关心;挂念;担心;忧虑

Thank you for your concern. 谢谢你的关心。

concern about/for/over 对……的关注(关心、担心)

More TV programs will be produced to raise people’s concern over food safety.


Now more and more people show much concern for our environment.


There is growing concern about the effects of pollution on health.


②[C] 关心的事

What are your main concerns as a golf player? 作为一个高尔夫球员,你最关心的是什么?Whether they are interested is the main concern of students when they choose a major? 学生在选择专业时,是否感兴趣是他们最关心的事。


(1)concerned /k?n?s?:nd/ adj. 担心的;有关的

be concerned about…关心;担心

You will tell your friend that you are concerned about him/her and you will meet after class and talk then. 你会告诉你的朋友你很担心他/她,下课后你们会见面交谈。(P1)

Now people are concerned about cell phone addiction. 现在人们担心手机依赖。

be concerned with…涉及……,与……相关

We could not prove he was concerned with the crime, so we had to release him.

我们无法证明他与此罪行有关, 因此不得不释放了他.

as far as sb.is concerned 就……而言

As far as I am concerned, educators should be concerned about the problems that are concerned with the healthy growth of children.在我看来,教育工作者应该关心与儿童健康成长有关的问题。

(2)concerning /k?n?s?:n??/ prep.涉及,关于

He asked several questions concerning the future of the company. 他问了几个关于公司未来的问题。

9.walk the dog 遛狗

While walking the dog, you were careless and it got loose and was hit by a car. 你遛狗的时候,不小心让它挣脱了绳子,并且被一辆汽车撞了。(P1)

While walking the dog = While you were walking the dog。

有些时间、条件、方式或让步状语从句,如果从句的主语与主句的主语一致(或从句的主语是it),且从句的谓语动词又包含be动词时,那么从句中的“主语+be”部分可以省略。The machine is of no use unless (it is) repaired. 这台机器如不修理便毫无用处。

She stood at the gate as if (she was) waiting for someone. 她站在门口好像在等人。

Come tomorrow if (it is )possible.有可能的话明天来。

10. loose /lu:s/ adj. 松的;松开的;不坚固的;宽松的

One of the tigers broke loose from the cage. 一只老虎从笼子里跑掉了。

I have got a loose tooth.我有一颗牙齿松动了。

She wears a long and loose coat today. 她今天穿着一件长而宽松的大衣。

11.△ vet /vet/ n. 兽医

You will take the dog to the vet and pay the bill yourself.


12.go through 经历;经受

①经历,经受(苦难等)(= experience)

Or are you afraid that your friend would laugh at you, or would not understand what you are going through? 或者你担心你的朋友会嘲笑你,不理解你目前的处境呢?(P2)However, she knew that she had got to go through all the difficulties with her family. 然而她知道她必须和她的家人经历所有的困难。


I always start the day by going through my email. 我每天第一件事就是看电子邮件。

I went through all my pockets but I couldn’t find my wallet. 所有的袋子我都找遍,就是找不到我的皮夹。


Go through the gate and you will get there. 穿过大门你就会到达那里。

13. set down

①记下,写下(= write down)

I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do.我不愿像大多数人那样在日记中记下一系列的事实(记流水账)。(P2)

1 wanted to set down my feelings.我想把我的感想写下来。

②放下(= put down)

They set the piano down carefully on the floor.他们把钢琴小心地放到地上。

Set the heavy bag down to have a rest.把那沉重的袋子放下,休息一会儿吧。

14.series /'s??ri:z/ n. 连续;系列(单复数同形)

Every night he sat on the sofa, watching the TV series.每天晚上他都坐在沙发上看电视连续剧。

a series of 一连串的;一系列;一套

a series of facts一系列的事实

At the end of every term, the students have to take part in a series of exams.每到期


I bought a series of Harry Potter. 我买了一套《哈利·波特》丛书。

15. outdoors /a?t?d?:z/ adv. 在户外;在野外(反义词为indoors)

I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature. 我不知道这是不是因为我太久无法出门的缘故,我变得对一切与大自然有关的事物都无比狂热。(P2)


outdoor /?a?td?:(r)/ adj. 户外的;野外的(反义词为indoor)

an outdoor sport/game 户外运动indoor flowers 室内花卉

16. on purpose 故意地(= by design)

For example, one evening when it was so warm, I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven in order to have a good look at the moon by myself. 比如说,有一天晚上天气很暖和,我故意熬到晚上11点半都不睡觉,为的就是能独自好好地看看月亮。(P2)

Sorry, I didn’t break the plate on purpose. 对不起,我不是故意打碎盘子的。


by accident/chance偶然地

I met her by accident/chance. 我遇到她完全是偶然的。

17. in order to 以便…,为了…

For example, one evening when it was so warm, I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven in order to have a good look at the moon by myself. 比如说,有一天晚上天气很暖和,我故意熬到晚上11点半都不睡觉,为的就是能独自好好地看看月亮。(P2)





18.dusk /d?sk/ n. 黄昏;傍晚

at dusk 在黄昏时刻

Another time five months ago, I happened to be upstairs at dusk when the window was open.


When the street lights go on at dusk, they make a beautiful picture, so different from the daytime.当街灯在黄昏时刻亮起时,构成了一幅美丽的画面,和白天时的景象大不相同。


at dawn/ daybreak/ noon/dusk/night/midnight在黎明/破晓/正午/黄昏/夜晚/午夜

19. thunder /'θ?nd?/

◎vi. 打雷;雷鸣

The dark, rainy evening, the wind, the thundering clouds held me entirely in their power.


It was thundering and lightning. 雷电交加。

◎n. 雷;雷声

We see the lightning before we hear the thunder.


【拓展】thunderstorm n. 雷暴

20. entire /?n'ta??/ adj. 整个的;全部的(仅用于名词前)

the entire staff 所有职员

We spent the entire afternoon chatting.我们整个下午都在聊天。

entirely /?n'ta??l?/ adv. 完全地;彻底地

Although Tim and Mike came from entirely different background, they became close friends.


He devoted himself entirely to his research. 他全身心地投入到了研究中。

21. power /pa??/ n.

①[U] 力量;威力

The dark, rainy evening, the wind, the thundering clouds held me entirely in their power.


As is known to us,knowledge is power. 众所周知,知识就是力量。

②[C,U] 能力;本领

After the accident, he lost the power of speech. 那次事故之后,他失去了说话的能力。

It is beyond my power to finish the task in two hours.两个小时之内完成这项工作超


③[C,U] 职权;权利

The police have been given special powers to help them in the fight against terrorism.


I am sorry it's beyond my power to make a final decision on the project. 很抱歉这个项目我没有权利做最后的决定。

④[U] 政权

He's been in power for eight years.他当权已有8年了。

The Republican Party came to power in 2016. 美国共和党是在2016年上台执政的。

⑤[U] 能源动力;电力

We can use the power of the wind to make electricity.我们可以使用风力来发电。

nuclear/wind/solar power核能/风能/太阳能

power cut/failure断电/停电


powerful /?pa??fl/ adj.(指人)有权势的;有影响力的;(指物)强有力的;很有效的His grandfather once was a rich and powerful man.


You're a powerful man — people will listen to you.


China is wealthier and more powerful than ever before.


22. face to face 面对面地

…it was the first time in a year and a half that I'd seen the night face to face...


His wish was to meet his favorite film star face to face.



shoulder to shoulder肩并肩heart to heart坦诚地back to back背对背

arm in arm臂挽臂hand in hand手牵手

side by side肩并肩step by step逐步地



23. curtain n.[C] /'k?:tn/ 窗帘;门帘;幕布

I am only able to look at nature through dirty curtains hanging before very dusty windows.我只能透过那满是灰尘的窗帘下那脏兮兮的窗户看看大自然。(P2)

Please draw the curtains; the sunlight is too bright. 请拉上窗帘;阳光太明亮了。

24.dusty /'d?st?/ adj. 积满灰尘的

I am only able to look at nature through dirty curtains hanging before very dusty windows.我只能透过那满是灰尘的窗帘下那脏兮兮的窗户看看大自然。(P2)

The old man lives in a dirty and dusty room.



dust /d?st/ n. 灰尘;尘土(名词+ y构成形容词)

The books were all covered with dust.书上积满了灰尘。

A cloud of dust rose as the truck drove off.卡车开过时扬起一片尘土。

25.no longer / not … any longer 不再……

It’s no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced. 只能隔着窗户看大自然不再有乐趣,因为大自然是需要真正体验的东西。(P2)Why did Anne no longer just like looking at nature out of the window? 为什么安妮不再仅仅喜欢去看窗户外面的大自然了呢?(P3)


26.partner /'pɑ:tn?/ n. 伙伴;合作者;合伙人

With a partner brainstorm some adjectives to describe her feelings.


"Changing Partners" , a pop song in the 1950s, is now still loved by many people.


a marriage partner配偶

27.settle /'setl/

①vt. & vi. (使)定居;(使)安定;(使)平静

She found it difficulty to settle and calm down in the hiding place, because she was concerned about whether they would be discovered. 她发现在藏身处安顿并平静下来很难,因为她担心他们是否被发现。(P4)

They settled in North America in the sixteenth century. 他们于16世纪在北美洲定居。

settle down定居;安顿下来;安静下来

Parents would like to see their children settle down, get married, and have kids.父母想看到孩子安顿下来,结婚生子。

The teacher told the students to settle down and study the text.


settle down to (doing) sth.专心做某事(to是介词)

Having settled in the beautiful mountainous village, he settled down to his research.在美



settle a quarrel/a dispute/differences解决纷争/争端/分歧

They settled their quarrel in a friendly way.他们以友好的方式解决了纷争。

We can settle /solve the problem easily. 这个问题很容易解决。


(1)settler /?setl?(r)/ n.殖民者;移民;定居者

This restaurant is owned by an Italian settler.


(2)settlement /?setlm?nt|/ n.定居点;协议;解决

The village is a settlement of just fifty houses. 这个村子里只住了50户人。

They have reached a settlement over new working conditions.


28.suffer /'s?f?/


suffer the result /heavy losses /injuries承受结果/遭受大损失/负伤

Having suffered a heavy pollution, it may be too late to clear the river.



At least he died suddenly and didn’t suffer.


suffer from 因……而痛苦;患有(疾病等)

She suffered from loneliness, but she had to learn to like it there.


All children will suffer from separation from their parents .


She suffers from headache. 她患头痛病。


(1)sufferer /?s?f?r?(r)/ n.受苦者;受难者;患病者

This new cancer treatment offers hope to many sufferers.


(2)suffering /?s?f?r??/ n.[C,U] 痛苦;苦难

We must bring suffering and hunger to an end in the world.


A man who fears suffering is already suffering from what he fears.


29.△ lonel iness /'l??nl?n?s/ n. 孤单;寂寞

She suffered from loneliness, but she had to learn to like it there.



lonely /?l??nli/ adj. 孤独的;荒僻的

alone /??l??n/ adj. 独自地

He lives alone in a lonely village, but doesn’t feel lonely.


30.highway /'ha?we?/ n. 公路;大路

When the man saw the car accident on the highway, he stopped in order to offer help.


31.recover /r?'k?v?/

①vi. 痊愈;恢复(健康/常态)

With my special care, my mother recovered quickly.在我的精心照料下,我妈妈很快就康复了。The global economy is beginning to recover. 全球经济开始复苏了。

recover from从……中恢复过来

How can Linda recover from her illness in this room when it's so dirty and dusty?


②vt. 恢复(视力,知觉等);重新获得(某物)

She didn't see anything suddenly but quickly recovered her sight.她突然什么都看不见


He lost his new bike, but he recovered it in the school.他丢了新自行车,但又在学校找到了。【拓展】

recovery /r??k?v?ri/ n.[U,C] 恢复;痊愈

The economy is showing signs of recovery.


make a quick/slow recovery恢复很快/缓慢

make a full recovery完全康复

To our joy, the boy made a quick recovery after the operation. 令我们高兴的是,这个男孩很快从手术中康复了。

32.get/be tired of 对……厌烦

“I've got tired of looking at nature through dirty curtains and dusty windows.” Anne said to her father.“我已经厌倦了透过脏兮兮的窗帘和布满灰尘的窗户看大自然。”安妮对父亲说。(P5)Many people are tired of the city life now. 现在很多人厌倦了城市的生活。

His mother is tired of living abroad. 他妈妈厌倦了住在国外。


get/be tired with/from( doing) sth.因(做)……而疲倦(身体上)

You must be tired with/from that long walk. 走了那么长的一段路,你一定累了。

33.pack /p?k/

◎vi. & vt. 捆扎;包装;把……打包/装箱

The workers packed the glasses and marked on each box “This Side Up”.


pack (sth) up 将(东西)装箱打包

I need to pack up my things into the suitcase very quickly. 我需要快速把这些东西放到手提箱里。(P5)

◎n. 小包;包裹

Give me my pack. 把包给我。

a pack of cigarettes/clothes一包香烟/衣服

34. suitcase /'su:tke?s/ n. 手提箱;衣箱

I need to pack up my things into the suitcase very quickly. 我需要快速把这些东西放到手提箱里。(P5)

35.overcoat /'??v?k??t/ n. 大衣;外套

Margot asked her what else she had hidden under her overcoat.


36.teenager /'ti:n e?d??/ n. 十几岁的青少年

Read the letter that Lisa wrote to Miss Wang of Radio for Teenagers and predict what Miss Wang will say. 读这封丽萨写给Radio for Teenagers的王小姐的信,并预测王小姐会说什么。(P6)37.get along with 与……相处;进展

I’m getting along well with a boy in my class.我跟我们班里的一位男同学一直相处很好。(P6)


38.△ goss ip /'ɡ?s?p/

◎vi. 说闲话, 闲聊

But other students have started gossiping.可是,其他同学却开始在背后议论起来。(P6)The whole town was gossiping about them. 全镇的人都在议论他们。

I can’t sit here gossiping all day. 我不能整天坐在这里闲聊吧。

◎n. 闲话;闲谈

He likes having a gossip with his friends.


39.fall in love 相爱;爱上

They say that this boy and I have fallen in love.他们说我和这位男同学在谈恋爱。(P6)

fall in love with sb./ sth.爱上某人/某物

ln the film, a beautiful girl fell in love with a beast.在这部影片中,美女爱上了野兽。



40.exactly /?ɡ'z?ktl?/ adv. 确实如此;正是;确切地

After hearing the advice given by the boss, he said, “Exactly, we agree.”


exactly speaking严格地说,确切地说(=to be exact)

Exactly speaking, I can't remember what she said.确切地说,我不记得她说了什么。

not exactly(纠正对方刚说过的话)不完全

--So you gave her your Walkman?那么你把随身听给她了?

--Not exactly.I lent it to her.不完全是。我借给她了。


exact /?g?z?kt|/ adj. 精确的,准确的

We need to know the exact time the accident happened. 我们需要知道事故发生的准确时间。She gave an exact description of the accident. 她对事故作了精确的描述。

to be exact准确地说

It was at seven fifty, to be exact. I happened to be passing by at that time.


41.disagree /d?s?'ɡr i:/ vi.


I disagree. 我不同意。(P6)

disagree with sb.( on/about/over sth.)(就某事)与某人意见不合

They failed to reach a settlement, because they disagreed too much with each other.


disagree with what sb. says/one’s opinion不同意某人的话/某人的看法

His expression suggested he disagreed with my opinion.他的表情表明他不同意我的看法。


disagree with sth.与某事物不符/不一致

What he said disagreed with what he did.他言行不一。

disagree with sb.(食物,气候等)对某人不适合;使不舒服

Seafood disagrees with me. 我一吃海鲜就不舒服。

The climate here disagrees with me. 这里的气候不适合我。


(1)agree /??gri:/ vi. 同意;相符;一致

—Measures must be taken to stop air pollution. 必须采取措施阻止空气污染。

--- I couldn’t agree more. 我非常赞同。

agree with 同意(某人或某人的看法、观点等);(食物,气候等)对某人适合;与……一致To tell the truth, I don't agree with you/your opinion.


I agree with what you say. 我同意你说的。

You look well. The air and the sea foods in Sanya must agree with you, I suppose.


The verb of this sentence does not agree with its subject.


agree to 同意(计划、安排、建议等)

He has agreed to our suggestion about the holiday. 他已经同意我们关于假日的计划了。agree on 双方一致同意某事,就某事达成共识

Both sides agreed on the price. 双方就价格达成了一致意见。

agree to do sth. 同意做某事

He agreed to go with us. 他同意同我们去。

(2)agreement n. 同意;一致

An agreement was finally reached between management and employees.


(3)disagreement n. 分歧;不符

I hope this disagreement does not divide us.


42.grateful /'ɡre?tf l/ adj. 感激的;表示谢意的

I would be grateful if you could give me some advice.


be grateful to sb.for sth. 因某事而感激某人

I am extremely grateful to all the teachers for their help.


I’m so grateful to all those volunteers because they helped my terrible day end happily.


be grateful to do sth 因做某事而感激

She seems to think I should be grateful to have a job.


43.dislike /d?s'la?k/

◎n. 不喜欢;厌恶

To ask people their likes and dislikes 询问人们的好恶(P7)

Make a list of all your likes and dislikes. 把所有的好恶列一个清单。

◎vt. 不喜欢;厌恶

I enjoy learning English, but I dislike remembering new words.我喜欢学英语,但不喜欢记生词。【拓展】

like vt. 喜欢---- dislike不喜欢

like prep.像----unlike 不像

Unlike many actors, he never likes being famous . 和许多演员不同的是,他从不喜欢出名。44.join in 参加;加入

You should join in discussions and show interest in other people’s ideas. 你应该参加讨论并且对其他人的观点表示感兴趣。(P7)

join in参加活动

join sb.in (doing) sth.加入某人一起做某事

Will you join us in playing football now? 现在和我们一起踢足球,好吗?


45.tip /t?p/



Here are some tips to help you. 这些建议会对你有所帮助。(P7)

He gave me some tips on how to take good pictures.



The tip of his nose was red. 他的鼻尖是红的。

the tip of the pen钢笔尖


He gave the waiter a 10% tip. 他给了服务员10%的小费。

◎vi. & vt.倾斜;翻倒

The boat tipped to one side. 船向一边倾斜。

He tipped some water into a bowl. 他往碗里倒了一些水。

46.△ secondly /'sek?ndl?/ adv. 第二;其次

Secondly, you could / can …第二,你可以……(P7)

Firstly, we haven't enough money, and secondl y we’re too busy.


47.swap /sw?p/ vt. 交换

Swap your letter with your partner and look at his work and help to improve it.


Can you swap seats with Joan? 你能和琼换换座位吗?

48.item /'a?t?m/ n. 项目;条款

a new grammar item 一个新的语法项目(P8)

We saved over ten thousand yuan on this item alone.


Book1 Unit2

1.△ subway /'s?bwe?/ n. 地下人行道;<美>地铁(=underground)

2.elevator /'el?ve?t?/ n. 电梯;升降机(=lift)

3.petrol /'petr?l/ n. <英>汽油(=<美>gasoline/gas)

4.gas /ɡ?s/ n. 汽油;气体;煤气;毒气

5.official /?'f??l/

◎adj.官方的;正式的; 公务的

With your partner, list the countries that use English as an official language 和你的搭档,列举出把英语用作官方语言的国家。(P9)

The President made a four-day official visit to Mexico.


◎n. (政府)官员;公务员

His grandfather is an officer in the army while his father is an official in the government.



officially adv. 官方地;正式地

The college is not an officially recognized English language school.



6. voyage /'v???d?/ n. 航行;航海;航天

Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries.


The ship sank on its long voyage . 在漫长的航行过程中,轮船下沉了。

They planned to go a voyage to the moon. 他们计划登月。

7.△ conquer /'k??k?/ vt. 征服;占领

There is always one thing to conquer another .


8. beca?se of 因为;由于

Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries.



9.native /'ne?t?v/

◎adj. 本国的;本地的

Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. 以英语作为母语的人,即使他们所讲不是同一种英语,他们也能彼此听懂。(P10)China is our native country, and Chinese is our native language.


be native to...原产于某地

The panda is native to China. 大熊猫产于中国。

◎n. 本地人;本国人

a native of当地人/产于……的动/植物

He is a native of Beijing. 他是北京人。

10. come up


Yes, I’d like to come up to your apartment.好的,我来看看你的公寓吧。(P10)

The little boy came up to the policeman to ask for help. 小男孩向警察走去,寻求帮助。


Many questions came up at the meeting.许多问题在会议上被提出来了。

come up with (人)提出……

They came up with many questions at the meeting. 他们在会上提出了很多问题。


It was six, and the sun was just coming up.



Danny, I heard your birthday is coming up.丹妮,我听说你快过生日了。

11. apartment /?'pɑ:tm?nt/ n. <美>公寓住宅;单元住宅(=flat)

Yes, I’d like to come up to your apartment.好的,我来看看你的公寓吧。(P10)

Even though the company is near his apartment, he has to hurry a little if he wants to arrive on time.尽管公司靠近他的公寓,如果他想要准时到达的话,还是必须快点。

12. actually /'?kt???l?/ adv. 实际上;事实上(=in actual fact)

Actually all languages change and develop when cultures meet and communicate with each other. 实际上,当不同文化相互交流渗透时,所有的语言都会有所发展和变化。(P10)

-Do you think it’s a good idea to make friends with your students?


-Actually, I do. I think it’s a great idea.


13.base /be?s/

◎vt. 以……为根据;以……为基础

It was based more on German than the English we speak at present. 当时的英语更多的是以德语为基础的,不像我们现在说的英语。(P10)

base… on/upon

be based on/upon以……为基础;以……为根据

My opinion is based on facts.


His uncle is going to make a film based on his story in his childhood.


Based on a true story, the film deeply moved us.


◎n. 基部;基地;基础

the economic base 经济基础

Plants are the base of the food chain.植物处于食物链的最底层。

14. at present 现在;目前(=at the present time=now )

It was based more on German than the English we speak at present. 当时的英语更多的是以德语为基础的,不像我们现在说的英语。(P10)

The world market price of coal is relatively low at present, but it is certain to change in the future. 目前世界煤炭的市场价格相对较低,将来一定会变化的。

15.gradual /'ɡr?d???l/ adj. 逐渐的;逐步的

There has been a gradual change in climate. 气候有了逐渐的变化。

There has been a gradual increase in the number of people owning cars.拥有汽车的人数在逐渐增加。

gradually /'gr?d???l?/ adv. 逐渐地;逐步地

Then gradually between about AD 800 and 1150, English became less like German because those who ruled England spoken first Danish and later French.


The girl used to be shy, but is gradually getting active in group work and is more willing to express herself.那个女孩过去很害羞,但逐渐对团队合作变得积极,并且更愿意表达自己的想法。【高考链接】


16.△ enr ich /?n'r?t?/ vt. 使富裕;充实;改善

These new settlers enriched the English language and especially its vocabulary. 这些新来的定居者丰富了英语语言,尤其是丰富了英语词汇。(P10)

The study of science has enriched our lives. 科学研究丰富了我们的生活。


rich adj. 丰富的;富裕的


able adj. 有能力的— enable vt. 使能够

short adj. 短的— shorten vt. 缩短

17.vocabulary /v?'k?bj?l?r?/ n.[C,U] 词汇;词汇量;词表

These new settlers enriched the English language and especially its vocabulary. 这些新来的定居者丰富了英语语言,尤其是丰富了英语词汇。(P10)

He has a poor vocabulary , so he can't express himself correctly.


We read to improve our vocabularies. 我们阅读以便扩大词汇量。

18. make use of 利用;使用

So by the 1600’s Shakespeare was able to make use of a wider vocabulary than ever before.所以到17世纪的时候,莎士比亚能够得以使用比以往任何时候都丰富的词汇。(P10)

You must make use of any opportunity to practice English.你一定要利用任何机会来练习英语。【用法】


19.spelling /'spel??/ n. 拼写;拼法

At that time two big changes in English spelling happened: 当时,英语的拼写发生了两个很大的变化:(P10)

Learn the new words taught today. Be sure that you know their spelling, pronunciation and

meaning. 学会今天教的生词,要掌握拼法、发音和词义。


spell/ spel/vt.拼写;拼法

He gave his name and then helpfully spelt it.


20. latter /'l?t?/