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国际商务习题003

Chapter 03

Differences in Culture True / False Questions

1. (p. 88) In today's world of global communications, rapid transportation and global markets, cultural differences have ceased to exist.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

2. (p. 88) Culture is static.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

3. (p. 89) Values are abstract ideas about what a group believes to be right, good and desirable. TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

4. (p. 89) A society is another name for a country.

FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

5. (p. 89) A country is defined as a system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people and that when taken together constitute a design for living.

FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

6. (p. 89) People who violate folkways are considered to be evil or bad.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

7. (p. 90) Folkways include rituals and symbolic behavior.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

8. (p. 90) The bow that is given by a Japanese business executive to another business executive is an example of symbolic behavior.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

9. (p. 90) Mores have much greater significance than folkways.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

10. (p. 91) If a country is characterized as having a single homogenous culture, then its national culture also is homogenous and not a mosaic of subcultures.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

11. (p. 91) The values and norms of a culture are evolutionary.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

12. (p. 92) A society's social structure refers to its basic social organization.

TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

13. (p. 92) Individualism has led to a high degree of managerial mobility between companies resulting in managers who have good general skills but lack company-specific experience. TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

14. (p. 93) The emphasis on individualism in the U.S. may raise the costs of doing business due to its adverse impact on managerial stability and cooperation.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

15. (p. 93) The group is the primary unit of organization in Western societies.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

16. (p. 93) As demonstrated by Japan, the primacy of the group is always beneficial.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

17. (p. 94) The term social strata refers to the extent to which individuals can move out of the strata into which they were born.

FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

18. (p. 94) The most rigid system of stratification is a class system.

FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

19. (p. 94) A caste system is a closed system of stratification in which social position is determined by the family into which the person is born.

TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

20. (p. 94) A class system is a rigid form of social stratification in which the position a person has by birth cannot be changed through his or her own achievements or luck.

FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

21. (p. 95) Historically, upward mobility could be achieved in a single generation in Britain. FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

22. (p. 95) China's communist rule strengthened class divisions.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

23. (p. 96) An antagonistic relationship between management and labor classes may result in higher costs of production.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

24. (p. 96) Confucianism can be accurately characterized as a religion.

FALSE

Difficulty: Hard

25. (p. 96) Christianity is nonexistent in Africa.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

26. (p. 98) Several sociologists have argued that of the three main branches of Christianity—Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant—the latter has the most important economic implications.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

27. (p. 98) Islam is the largest of the world's major religions.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

28. (p. 99) Islam has roots in both Judaism and Christianity.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

29. (p. 100) Muslim countries are likely to be receptive to international business as long as those businesses behave in a manner that is consistent with Islamic ethics.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

30. (p. 100) The protection of the right to private property is also embedded within Islam. TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

31. (p. 102) A mudarabah contract banking method of Islamic banks is similar to a profit-sharing scheme.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

32. (p. 102) Like Christianity and Islam, Hinduism's founding is also linked to a particular person and it has an officially sanctioned sacred book.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

33. (p. 104) Hindus perceive the pursuit of material well-being as making the attainment of nirvana easier.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

34. (p. 104) Unlike Hinduism, Buddhism does not support the caste system.

TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

35. (p. 105) Guanxi is an important mechanism for building long-term business relationships and getting business done in China.

TRUE

Difficulty: Medium

36. (p. 106-107) Since English is often thought of as the global language of business, it is not important for an American business executive to learn foreign languages.

FALSE

Difficulty: Easy

37. (p. 107) Unspoken language refers to nonverbal communication.

TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

38. (p. 108) Hofstede's power distance dimension focused on how a society deals with the fact that people are unequal in physical and intellectual capabilities.

TRUE

Difficulty: Easy

39. (p. 110) Culture is a constant; it does not evolve over time.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

40. (p. 112) Cultural change is unidirectional, with national cultures converging toward some homogenous global entity.

FALSE

Difficulty: Medium

Multiple Choice Questions

41. (p. 88) During the 1960s and 1970s, class divisions in _____ raised the cost of doing business there, relative to other European countries.

A. Great Britain

B. Switzerland

C. Norway

D. Germany

Difficulty: Hard

42. (p. 88) Which of the following is not true regarding culture?

A. Culture is static

B. Culture is evolving

C. It is a system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people

D. It involves the knowledge and beliefs of people

Difficulty: Easy

43. (p. 89) _____ is/are best defined as shared assumptions about how things ought to be.

A. Norms

B. Values

C. Society

D. Culture

Difficulty: Easy

44. (p. 89) The system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people and that when taken together constitute a design for living best defines

A. Society

B. Value systems

C. Principles

D. Culture

Difficulty: Easy

45. (p. 89) Social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior in particular situations are best described as

A. Norms

B. Values

C. Culture

D. Society

Difficulty: Easy

46. (p. 89) A group of people who share a common set of values and norms form a

A. Culture

B. Society

C. Country

D. Caste

Difficulty: Easy

47. (p. 89) _____ are the routine conventions of everyday life.

A. Folkways

B.

C. Rites

D. Beliefs

Difficulty: Easy

48. (p. 89) _____ are social conventions concerning things such as the appropriate dress code in a particular situation, good social manners, eating with the correct utensils, neighborly behavior and the like.

A. Values

B. Beliefs

C. Mores

D. Folkways

Difficulty: Medium

49. (p. 90) An act, as simple as shaking hands when meeting new people is an example of

A. Values

B. Symbolic behavior

C. Mores

D. Social stratification

Difficulty: Medium

50. (p. 90) A Japanese executive's ritual of presenting a business card to a foreign business executive is an example of

A. Mores

B. Values

C. Attitudes

D. Folkways

Difficulty: Medium

51. (p. 90) Mores are

A. The norms that are seen as central to the functioning of a society and its social life

B. The routine conventions of every day life

C. Abstract ideas about what a group believes to be right, good and desirable

D. The social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior in particular situations Difficulty: Easy

52. (p. 91) Which of the following statement about values and norms of a culture is not true?

A. The values and norms of a society do not emerge fully formed

B. They are the evolutionary product of a number of factors

C. They are influenced by social structure and religion

D. They do not influence social structure and religion

Difficulty: Hard

53. (p. 92) The social organization of Western society tends to emphasize on

A. A group orientation

B. The family

C. Individual achievement

D. Work groups

Difficulty: Medium

54. (p. 92) The emphasis on individualism in the U.S. results in all of the following disadvantages except

A. Managers tend to develop good general skills but lack the company-specific experience

B. Difficulty in building teams within an organization to perform collective tasks

C. Executives are not exposed to different ways of doing business

D. Difficulty to achieve cooperation both within a company and between companies

Difficulty: Medium

55. (p. 93) A central value of Japanese culture is the importance attached to

A. The individual

B. Group membership

C. Individual achievement

D. Personal accomplishments

Difficulty: Easy

56. (p. 93) It has been argued that the success of Japanese enterprises in the global economy has been based partly all of the following except

A. The diffusion of self-managing work teams

B. The close cooperation among different functions within Japanese companies

C. The high degree of managerial mobility between companies

D. The cooperation between a company and its suppliers on issues such as design, quality control and inventory reduction

Difficulty: Hard

57. (p. 94) Which of the following refers to the extent to which individuals can move out of the strata into which they are born?

A. Caste stratification

B. Class system

C. Social mobility

D. Individual potential

Difficulty: Easy

58. (p. 94) A _____ is a closed system of stratification in which social position is determined by the family into which a person is born and change in that position is usually not possible during an individual's lifetime.

A. Caste system

B. Class system

C. Social system

D. Culture system

Difficulty: Easy

59. (p. 94) This is a less rigid form of social stratification in which social mobility is possible.

A. Social system

B. Caste system

C. Cultural system

D. Class system

Difficulty: Easy

60. (p. 94) These strata are typically defined on the basis of characteristics such as family background, occupation and income.

A. Demographic strata

B. Economic strata

C. Social strata

D. Cultural strata

Difficulty: Medium

61. (p. 94) A class system

A. Is the same as a caste system

B. Is a rigid form of social stratification that does not permit social mobility

C. Allows an individual to change his or her position via personal achievements

D. Is more rigid than the caste system

Difficulty: Medium

62. (p. 95) A condition where people tend to perceive themselves in terms of their class background and this shapes their relationships with members of other classes is known as

A. Economic classification

B. Social mobility

C. Class mobility

D. Class consciousness

Difficulty: Medium

63. (p. 95) _____ has been played out in British society in the traditional hostility between-upper-middle class managers and their working class employees.

A. Class consciousness

B. Cultural unity

C. Social awareness

D. Category mindfulness

Difficulty: Medium

64. (p. 95) In china, class divisions

A. Have historically been of no importance

B. Were strengthened during the high point of communist rule

C. Increased even during reforms of the late 1970s and early 1980s

D. Were weakened because of a rigid system of household registration

Difficulty: Hard

65. (p. 95) The emergence of class-consciousness in Great Britain can be attributed to

A. The relative lack of class mobility

B. A high degree of social mobility

C. An extreme emphasis on individualism

D. Most of the population perceiving itself to be middle class

Difficulty: Medium

66. (p. 95) Class consciousness

A. Refers to a set of moral principles or values, that are used to guide and shape behavior

B. Is a condition where people tend to perceive themselves in terms of their class background

C. Is the extent to which individuals can move out of the strata into which they are born

D. Is a closed system of stratification in which social position is determined by the family into which a person is born

Difficulty: Hard

67. (p. 96) Which of the following cannot be characterized as a religion?

A. Islam

B. Hinduism

C. Confucianism

D. Buddhism

Difficulty: Easy

68. (p. 96) Ethical systems are

A. A set of moral principles or values, that are used to guide and shape behavior

B. Shared beliefs and rituals that are concerned with the realm of the sacred

C. Routine conventions of everyday life

D. Social rules that govern peoples' actions toward each other

Difficulty: Easy

69. (p. 96) Religion may be defined as

A. Routine conventions of everyday life

B. Social rules that govern peoples' actions toward each other

C. Shared beliefs and rituals that are concerned with the realm of the sacred

D. A set of moral principles or values, that are used to guide and shape behavior

Difficulty: Easy

70. (p. 96) _____ is the most widely practiced religion in the world.

A. Christianity

B. Islam

C. Hinduism

D. Buddhism

Difficulty: Medium

71. (p. 98) The second largest of the world's religions is

A. Christianity

B. Buddhism

C. Hinduism

D. Islam

Difficulty: Medium

72. (p. 98) According to sociologists which of the following branches of Christianity has the most important economic implications?

A. Catholic

B. Orthodox

C. Protestant

D. Mormon

Difficulty: Hard

73. (p. 98) Identify the sociologist who made a connection between Protestant ethics and "the spirit of capitalism" that has since become famous.

A. Paul Massing

B. Max Weber

C. Franz Oppenheimer

D. Francis Galton

Difficulty: Easy

74. (p. 100) Which of the following observations is correct?

A. None of the economic principles established in the Koran are pro–free enterprise

B. The Koran speaks approvingly of free enterprise

C. The Koran speaks disapprovingly of earning legitimate profit through trade and commerce

D. Protection of the right to private property is not embedded within Islam

Difficulty: Medium

75. (p. 100) According to Islam, those who hold property are regarded as

A. Trustees

B.

C. Tenants

D. Speculators

Difficulty: Medium

76. (p. 102) This is an Islamic banking method where banks lend money to a business and rather than charging that business interest on the loan, they take a share in the profits that are derived from the investment.

A. Mudarabah

B. Murabaha

C. Maysir

D. Mudarib

Difficulty: Hard

77. (p. 102) Which Islamic banking method is the most widely used among the world's Islamic banks, primarily because it is the easiest to implement?

A. Mudarib

B. Murabaha

C. Maysir

D. Mudarabah

Difficulty: Hard

78. (p. 102) According to _____ the way to achieve nirvana is to lead a severe ascetic lifestyle of material and physical self-denial, devoting life to a spiritual rather than material quest.

A. Buddhism

B. Hinduism

C. Confucianism

D. Islam

Difficulty: Medium

79. (p. 104) According to Max Weber,

A. Principles embedded in Hinduism encourage high levels of entrepreneurial activity

B. Hindu values emphasize that individuals should be judged by their material achievements

C. Pursuit of material well-being makes the attainment of nirvana easier

D. Devout Hindus would be less likely to engage in entrepreneurial activity than devout Protestants

Difficulty: Medium

80. (p. 104) Identify the incorrect statement pertaining to the caste system in India.

A. It was supported by Hinduism

B. Traditionally mobility between castes within an individual's lifetime was not possible

C. It has been completely uprooted from the country's social life

D. It has been abolished in India

Difficulty: Hard

81. (p. 104) Buddhism

A. Stresses the afterlife and spiritual achievement

B. Advocates extreme ascetic behavior

C. Supports the caste system

D. Stresses maximum involvement in this world

Difficulty: Medium

82. (p. 105) Confucianism

A. Is best characterized as a religion

B. Is highly concerned with the supernatural and afterlife

C. Teaches the importance of attaining personal salvation through right action

D. Is built around a comprehensive legal system

Difficulty: Medium

83. (p. 105) Three values central to the Confucian system of ethics have very important economic implications. Which of these is not one among them?

A. Loyalty

B. Rule-based law

C. Reciprocal obligations

D. Honesty in dealings with others

Difficulty: Medium

84. (p. 106) While _____ is the mother tongue of the largest number of people in the world, the most widely spoken language is

A. Spanish; Chinese

B. English; Hindi

C. Hindi; Spanish

D. Chinese; English

Difficulty: Medium

85. (p. 108) The _____ dimension of Hofstede's study explores how a society deals with the fact that people are unequal in physical and intellectual capabilities.

A. Power distance

B. Individualism vs. collectivism

C. Uncertainty avoidance

D. Masculinity vs. femininity

Difficulty: Easy