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21世纪研究生英语

D第一课

1. Reading comprehension

(1) The economic forces behind globalization include rising trade and investment flows, greater labor mobility, and rapid transfers of technology. Those trends have been stimulated by the deregulation of financial markets, reductions in trade barriers, and lower communication costs.

(2) Most economists support globalization because it raises the incomes of people worldwide. Another lesser noticed benefit is that it makes it harder for governments to sustain excessively high tax rates. When economic integration increases, individuals and businesses gain the freedom to take advantage of low tax rates abroad.

(3) It shows that some smart nations like Ireland are treating international tax competition as an opportunity, not a threat.

(4) First, high tax countries have urged international organizations to reduce

tax competition. Second, many nations are adding layers of complex rules on businesses to discourage them from investing abroad, rather than reducing tax burdens so that businesses want to invest at home.

(5) Because there are more opportunities and lower taxes in cities such as London.

(6) The author cites the case of Ireland to show that with the reduction of taxes,

a large number of immigrants are attracted, and people at home are unwilling to migrate out. The lower one country’s tax is, the more skilled people are attracted.

(7) Because market competition encourages production efficiency. Tax competition provides an incentive to improve government efficiency. For example, the Federal government is no longer a monopoly—Americans now are able to invest abroad, retire in a low tax Caribbean country, or move their business to low tax Ireland. Accordingly, the Federal government needs to reform the tax code and provide services more efficiently to encourage Americans and their money to stay at home.

(8) Tax competition among countries should be a win win policy, as it restrains governments and helps spur global economic growth.

2. Vocabulary

(1) d(2) g(3) k(4) i(5) b(6) m(7) c(8) f(9) n(10) a

3. Paraphrase

(1) Until now, basic economic forces have gone beyond political efforts to make this trend slow. Efforts to oppose economic globalization have extended from anti globalization protests to Congressional law making to prevent America n companies from building subsidiary business in foreign countries.

(2) Some nations are treating tax competition as a useless and disadvantageous thing. High tax countries have urged international organizations, such as the organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), to ease tax competition.

(3) And many nations are formulating a series of complex rules on businesses so as

to try to keep them from investing abroad, instead of reducing tax burdens so that businesses are willing to invest at home.

(4) The U.S. is divided into this group because it has one of the highest

corporate tax rates. Nevertheless, America continues to put off reforming tax policies, which is expected for a long time.

(5) International investors have been affected easily by changes and differences between national tax rates as their investment choices have increased.

(6) Another noticeable issue is that many businesses used to invest in foreign country only want to take the opportunity for fixed resources, such as oil deposits. Today, many industries-such as finance and services-are free to invest

and can set up new firms anywhere.

(7) For example, in recent year Canadian policymakers have to consider an important issue that a group of skilled and talented people from technology industries in Canada have emigrate to its lower tax southern neighbor, the U.S. (8) For many years, young Irish people went to America and other foreign countries, and tried to find a way to live a better life. But after Ireland

reduced individual tax and then quickly cut corporate tax, the pattern of

out migration was changed around completely in this country.

(9) To keep the skilled labor from leaving their own country to other countries, governments had to direct spending and tax levels to satisfy local residents. In which country Individuals chose to reside according to their demand for public goods relative to local tax levels.

(10) If the U.S. makes progress in tax reform, other nations would probably reform their taxes in the same way, as they did when the U.S. reduced rates in the

1980s.

4. Cloze

(1) and(2) understand(3) about(4) sides(5) what(6) bad(7) nor(8) properly(9) destroy(10) says(11) which(12) stronger(13) behind(14) up(15) While(16) unique(17) dark(18) benefits(19) from(20) rule5. Translation

A. Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese.

由于殖民地与许多海外地区的大量贸易,所有欧洲重要商业国以及它们在西半球领地的金银铸币在北美东海岸都可以自由交换。由于法律不允许英国货币从英国流向殖民地,相比之下,西班牙的货币更加重要。这些货币在墨西哥城及利马铸造,再进入西班牙殖民地。西班牙币在殖民地被普遍使用,以至于这种硬币最后成为美国货币单位。虽然早在1652年马萨诸塞率先铸造低含金量的硬币,但殖民地最后转而印制纸币以补充短缺且不可靠的货币供给。著名人士的期票与签发给英国商人的汇票几个月内就能顺利转手。此外,各个殖民地的财政部门开始在收税前签发期票,同时向城镇官员下达书面命令要求当地店铺履行付款义务,如其他可转让的单据一样,这些票据经背书后可作为货币进行交换。

B. Translate the following sentences into English.

(1)With China’s successful entry into the WTO, state owned banks are faced with more and more pressure. The big bank intends to merge with two small banks so as to quickly solve the problem of capital sufficiency and enlarge its scale.

(2)Because of the recessionary effect on global economy and inflation, many

small businesses in this city have gone bankrupt or have been swallowed up by

giant corporations. It leads to a large number of workers facing unemployment.

(3)He didn’t marry her, because he felt that although pity was closely akin to love, they were still different. He was eager to marry for love, not pity.

(4)Web based training and learning seems to be a perfect way to reach a huge pool of potential students, as well as curtail the high infrastructure and

personnel costs of traditional schooling.

(5)With the growing of this town’s ec onomy, local government intends to tailor

a first class nursing home for the needs of the elderly.

(6)The deregulation of financial markets taken by government is very helpful to economical globalization, but, at the same time, it brings some unpleasant influences on domestic economy.

(7)I wish my little brother would desist from playing network games all day, otherwise he would have to discontinue his studies.

(8)One shop began to prolong the shop hours, and all other shops along the same street followed suit.

(9)Following the dramatic currency depreciations in many East Asian economies in 1997, these countries suffered sharp and lingering recessions. This outcome runs counter to the notion that depreciations ought to boost output because they make domestically produced goods cheaper.

Text BMeasuring Globalization

Key to the exercises

1.F

2. F

3. T

4. F

5. T

6. T

7. F

8. F

9. F10. T

第三课

1. Reading comprehension

(1) In Belgium and the Netherlands, the avian flu was wiping out entire chicken farms. And even though Dutch farmers recently slaughtered 18 million birds in hopes of stopping the outbreak, the bird flu has spread to several provinces and jumped from poultry to pigs and even people, causing 83 human cases. The complaints of most infected people were eye inflammation and some developed respiratory illness.

(2) They didn’t think so because smallpox was largely defeated and AIDS had never been heard nor dreamed of; and at that time medical science was advancing very fast.

(3) The ocean disturbance caused an unusually warm winter in the Southeast of America, which gave rise to an explosion of the mouse population that gave a free ride to the hantavirus to be bad enough to infect human beings.

(4) In the 1980s, when the farmers in Venezuela cleared millions of acres of

forest to create cropland, the arrival of more and more rodents introduced a

deadly new virus—Guanarito virus — into the region. It caused fever, shock and hemorrhaging, infecting more than 100 people and leaving a third of them dead. The

lesson we should learn is that almost any activity that disrupts a natural environment can enhance the mobility of disease—causing microbes.

(5) A similar experience happened to Malaysian farmers in 1999 after they pushed back the forest to expand their operations. As barns replaced forestland,

displaced fruit bats started living in the rafters, contaminating the pigs’

drinking water with the Nipah virus. The pigs developed an explosive cough that became known as the one mile cough because it could be heard from so far away. The virus soon spread from the pigs to their keepers, causing extreme brain inflammation and killing 40 percent of the affected people. It resulted in eight

farms closed and a million pigs slaughtered.

(6) No, we cannot. Rain forests are not dangerous. The point is that human beings blindly rearrange ecosystems that can be hazardous to our health. Another such example is Lyme disease.

(7) The human AIDS viruses are descended from simian pathogens known as SIVs. HIV

1 is basically a chimpanzee virus, while HIV

2 comes from the sooty mangabey (a monkey). The best suggestion to the current wide spread of AIDS is that African hunters contracted the chimp virus while butchering animals, and then passed it on through sexual contact. The reason why so many people have nowadays got AIDS is not just a new infectious agent but a proliferation of roads, cities and airports,

a breakdown of social traditions, and the advent of blood banking and needle sharing.

(8) Human society has been progressing at an unprecedented clip with more and more comfortable life, helped with advanced science and technology. However, many subsequent disasters have told us that a lot of efforts to improve our life is at

the expense of the law of nature, which, in turn, can make us sick. One impressive case mentioned by the author is the Malaysian pig farmers’ experience in 1999.

After they started pushing back the forest to expand their operations, the fruit

bats began to live in the rafters, contaminat ing the pigs’ drinking water with a pathogen now known as Nipah virus, which soon spread from pigs to their keepers, killing 40 percent of the affected people.

2. Vocabulary

(1) parade(2) scourge(3) surveillance(4) virulent(5) harbored(6) disrupting(7) bombarded(8) contracted3. Paraphrase

(1) SARS may have been the most important topic in the newspapers last week, but it wasn’t the only peculiar disease according to the report the World Health Organization had received.

(2) With the continuing manifestation of frightening new illnesses, we become more and more sure that human beings, in spite of our intelligence, are still under the control of the microbe.

(3) With smallpox largely defeated, no such thing as AIDS even imagined and medical science advancing fast, we thought human beings could defeat all microbes.

(4) We are not sure about every factor causing disease.

(5) Such accidents are sure to happen until someone stops the spreading of disease.

(6) These conditions practically decided HIV’s wide spread, and they continue to quickly get every corner of the world infected by the originally unknown bugs. (7) The number of travelers and speed of travel have both reached the highest degree.

(8) Nobody can predict how much we can achieve in this work.

4. Cloze

(1) account(2) including(3) deaths(4) burden(5) reflects(6) result(7)

increasing(8) approach(9) under(10) strategy(11) extensive(12) presented(13)

goal(14) improve(15) through(16) synthesize(17) between(18) for(19) agree(20) framework5. Translation

A. Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese.

据美国国家过敏和传染病中心(NIAID)的研究人员说, 往猴子的鼻内喷一次测试疫苗, 猴子就可以免得非典。同时,一些荷兰的科学家已经成功地利用人类抗体保护了白鼬不受病毒侵袭。由亚历山大?博克乐耶夫领导的NIAID科研小组把产生主要非典蛋白的基因(叫做SARS S)插入一种削弱的人类流感病毒,并用这样培养出来的试验疫苗治疗四个猴子。另外四个猴子给以安慰疫苗。把所有的药直接喷进猴子的鼻腔。免疫接种后一个月,两组猴子都被有意染上非典。研究人员发现,从接受安慰剂的猴子的呼吸道的取样中有复制的病毒,这表明免疫接种失败。而在接受正常疫苗的猴子身上却没有这种症状。

B. Translate the following sentences into English.

(1) Though difficulties kept on cropping up in his research work, he still

suceeded in finding this new element after solving all the problems.

(2) The train was moving at such a good clip that one day’s travel brought him to

the south with scorching sun from the northern part of the country covered with white snow.

(3) During her first voyage to the sea, this ship’s engine broke down, so s he was

left at the mercy of the rough sea.

(4) While seeking after their own profit, some companies ignore the farmer workers ’ interest. Recently, the government has been bombarded with the complaints about delayed payment.

(5) With the bird flu emerging in some Southeast Asian countries,our government has placed the imported food from those countries under close surveillance.

(6) While economic globalization has brought absolute opportunities to some Chinese, the challenges it causes to others are also unmistakable.

(7) To our relief, the vote in this assembly stopped certain countries from containing China.

(8) With some people, the old saying “One’s character at three years old seals

his fate.” is true, but there are many people with different experienc es.

Text BBasic Information about SARS

Key to the exercises

1. F

2. F

3. F

4. T

5. T

6. F

7. T

8. F

9. T10. F

第十一课

Key to the exercises

1. Reading comprehension

(1) D(2) B(3) B(4) A(5) C(6) B(7) A(8) B

2. Vocabulary

(1) sanctified(2) dignity(3) mocking(4) accommodating(5) conducts(6) advocacy(7)priority(8) remedy

3. Paraphrase

(1) We are able to best understand the holiness of our humanity when we admit that our existence does not spring from ourselves. And there is no exception to our parents and grandparents.

(2) Refusal to accept our biological humanity (born sex) does not agree with the concept of social stability, nor agree with the deep and rich history of our nation.

(3) When we understand that these things are not related to our inborn dignity, wenbecome free from that concern.

(4) I don’t believe that our forefathers expected that this site would be used to argue whether, as a matter of public policy, it is unfair for taxpayers not to pay for sex change operations.

(5) They declared they would certainly act against their own sex by changing it.

(6) This is completely wrong.

(7) My opponent also suggested that America’s working places should allow for

their cross dressing and other expressions of their dislike of their sexual

identity.

4. Cloze

(1) calls(2) reduction(3) avoidance(4) resort(5) dispute(6) about(7) moderation(8)greed(9)significance(10)recognized(11) meaning(12) absurd(13) easier(14) and(15)at(16) during(17) ejection(18) notable(19) through(20) metaphor

5. Translation

A. Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese.

(1) 正如我们所看到的,当燃料、食品或家用必需品供应减少时,人们就把它

们储备起来以确保他们维持正常生活,而不管邻居会怎样缺乏。当大的跨国组织不满足他们的利润时,他们就和竞争者们合并成更大的集团,以至政府都顺从他们的需要,同时我们谈论的民主决定也变得毫无意义。在医疗保健方面,医生和病人都要提高治愈率。当这种要求过高时,用药率上升,副作用的机率也随之加大。若懂得适可而止,所有的危机就都可以避免了。

(2) “政治教育发源于自然法则的理想教学的概念。它的中心是人类的尊严。确

实,人类的尊严是一个人的责任心存在的唯一理由。这个词表达了这样的事实——和对所有别的人一样,要以自然主义的含义去理解这个人,因此,与对待自然不同,不能把它看做是可交易的物品。的确,尊严应当被认为是个主体,且受到尊重。其政治结果是要求把自由作为每个人均衡发展自我的先决条件。所以,政治启蒙运动的最高原则这样写道:每个人都有享受自由和人类尊严的平等权利。”

B. Translate the following sentences into English.(1) Denials of our biological humanity are not implicit in the concept of ordered liberty nor are they reflective of the deep and rich history of our nation.

(2) Dignity does not float down from heaven. It cannot be purchased nor manufactured. It is a reward reserved for those who labor with diligence.

(3) What we do must be consistent with what we say. Words without deeds make a mockery of the moral values we have claimed to love for so many years.

(4) The people having on internal battle with sexual identity suggested that their working places accommodate their cross dressing and other expressions.

(5) If you cherish great expectations in your mind, you put yourself into a condition that is conducive to your goal.

(6) He became a famous astronomer by virtue of his strong curiosity about the space and stars since he was very young.

(7) His idea of developing their corporation to a multi national one was at once espoused by the whole committee.

(8) Some people think it is discriminatory policy to ask the students from Hong Kong and Taiwan to pay high tuition to study in this school.

Text BMorality Is the Basis of Understanding

Key to the exercises

1. F

2. T

3. F

4. F

5. T

6. T

7. T

8. F

9. T10. F 12