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《英语语言学概论》精选试题学生版

《英语语言学概论》精选试题1

1. Which of the following statements about language is NOT true?

A. Language is a system

B. Language is symbolic

C. Animals also have language

D. Language is arbitrary

2. Which of the following features is NOT one of the design features of language?

A. Symbolic

B. Duality

C. Productive

D. Arbitrary

3. What is the most important function of language?

A. Interpersonal

B. Phatic

C. Informative

D. Metalingual

4. Who put forward the distinction between Langue and Parole?

A. Saussure

B. Chomsky

C. Halliday

D. Anonymous

5. According to Chomsky, which is the ideal user's internalized knowledge of his language?

A. competence

B. parole

C. performance

D. langue

6. The function of the sentence "A nice day, isn't it?" is .

A. informative

B. phatic

C. directive

D. performative

7. Articulatory phonetics mainly studies .

A. the physical properties of the sounds produced in speech

B. the perception of sounds

C. the combination of sounds

D. the production of sounds

8. The distinction between vowels and consonants lies in .

A. the place of articulation

B. the obstruction of airstream

C. the position of the tongue

D. the shape of the lips

9. Which is the branch of linguistics which studies the characteristics of speech sounds and provides methods for their description, classification and transcription?

A. Phonetics

B. Phonology

C. Semantics

D. Pragmatics

10. Which studies the sound systems in a certain language?

A. Phonetics

B. Phonology

C. Semantics

D. Pragmatics

11. Minimal pairs are used to .

A. find the distinctive features of a language

B.find the phonemes of a language

C. compare two words

D. find the allophones of language

12. Usually, suprasegmental features include ___ ,length and pitch.

A. phoneme

B. speech sounds

C. syllables

D. stress

13. Which is an indispensable part of a syllable?

A. Coda

B. Onset

C. Stem

D. Peak

三、判断

1.The analyst collects samples of the language as it is used, not according to some views of how it should be used. This is called the prescriptive approach. F

2.Broad transcription is normally used by the phoneticians in their study of speech sounds. F

台州学院考试题

1.Articulatory Phonetics studies the physical properties of speech sounds.

2.English is a typical intonation language.

3.Phones in complementary distribution should be assigned to the same phoneme.

4.Linguistic c__________ is a native speaker’s linguistic knowledge of his language.

1.The relationship between the sound and the meaning of a word is a________.

2.P ____ refers to the realization of langue in actual use.

3.Linguistics is generally defined as the s ____ study of language.

1. Which of the following branch of linguistics takes the inner structure of word as its main object of study?

A. Phonetics.

B. Semantics.

C. Morphology.

D. Sociolinguistics.

3. Which of the following is a voiceless bilabial stop?

A.[w].

B. [m].

C. [b].

D. [p].

6. What phonetic feature distinguishes the [p] in please and the [p] in speak?

A.V oicing

B. Aspiration

C. Roundness

D. Nasality

11. Conventionally a ________ is put in slashes.

A. allophone

B. phone

C. phoneme

D. morpheme

13. Language is tool of communication. The symbol “highway closed”serves___.

A. an expressive function

B. an informative function

C. a performative function

D. a persuasive function

14. Which of the following groups of words is a minimal pair?

A. but/pub

B. wet/which

C. cool/curl

D. fail/find

16. What are the dual structures of language?

A. Sounds and letters.

B. Sounds and meaning.

C. Letters and meaning.

D. Sounds and symbols.

19. Which of the following is one of the core branches of linguistics?

A. Phonology.

B. Psycho-linguistics.

C. Sociolinguistics.

D. Anthropology.

IV. Translate the following linguistic terms: (10 points, 1 point each)

A. From English to Chinese

B. From Chinese to English

1. acoustic phonetics

6. 應用語言學

2. closed class words

4. distinctive features

VI. Answer the following questions briefly. (20 points)

1. Define phoneme. (4 points)

2. Explain complementary distribution with an example.(5 points)

3. What are the four criteria for classifying English vowels. (4 points)

问答答案1. A contrastive phonological segment whose phonetic realizations are predictable by rules. (4 points)(or: A phoneme is a phonological unit; it is a unit that is of distinctive value.)

2. The situation in which phones never occur in the same phonetic environment.(4 points)e.g. [p] and [p h] never occur in the same position. (1 point)

3. the position of the tongue in the mouth(1 point), the openness of the mouth(1 point), the shape of the lips(1 point), and the length of the vowels. (1 point)

Chapter 1 Introductions to Linguistics

I. Choose the best answer. (20%)

1. Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human __________

A. contact

B. communication

C. relation

D. Community

2. Which of the following words is entirely arbitrary?

A. tree

B. typewriter

C. crash

D. Bang

3. The function of the sentence ―Water boils at 100 degrees Centigrade.‖ is

__________.

A. interrogative

B. directive

C. informative

D. Performative

4. In Chinese when someone breaks a bowl or a plate the host or the people present are likely to say―碎碎(岁岁)平安‖as a means of controlling the forces which they believes feel

might affect their lives. Which functions does it perform?

A. Interpersonal

B. Emotive

C. Performative

D. Recreational

5. Which of the following property of language enables language users to overcome the barriers caused by time and place, due to this feature of language, speakers of a language are free to talk about anything in any situation?

A. Transferability

B. Duality

C. Displacement

D. Arbitrariness

6. Study the following dialogue. What function does it play according to the functions of language?

—A nice day, isn’t it?

— Right! I really enjoy the sunlight.

A. Emotive

B. Phatic

C. Performative

D. Interpersonal

7. __________ refers to the actual realization of the ideal language user’s knowledge of the rules of his language in utterances.

A. Performance

B. Competence

C. Langue

D. Parole

8. When a dog is barking, you assume it is barking for something or at someone that exists hear and now. It couldn’t be sorrowful for some lost love or lost bone. This indicates the design feature of __________.

A. cultural transmission

B. productivity

C. displacement

D. Duality

9. __________ answers such questions as how we as infants acquire our first language.

A.Psycholinguistics

B.Anthropological linguistics

C. Sociolinguistics

D. Applied linguistics

10. __________ deals with language application to other fields, particularly education.

A. Linguistic theory

B. Practical linguistics

C. Applied linguistics

D. Comparative linguistics

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (10%)

11. Language is a means of verbal communication. Therefore, the communication way used by the deaf-mute is not language. F

13. Speaking is the quickest and most efficient way of the human communication systems.

14. Language is written because writing is the primary medium for all languages. F

15. We were all born with the ability to acquire language, which means the details of any language system can be genetically transmitted. F

16. Only human beings are able to communicate. F

17. F. de Saussure, who made the distinction between langue and parole in the early 20th century, was a French linguist. F

18. A study of the features of the English used in Shakesp eare’s time is an example of the diachronic历时study of language. F

19. Speech and writing came into being at much the same time in human history.F

20. All the languages in the world today have both spoken and written forms. F

III. Fill in the blanks. (10%)

21. Language, broadly speaking, is a means of __verbal________ communication.

22. In any language words can be used in new ways to mean new things and can be combined into innumerable sentences based on limited rules. This feature is usually termed ___creativity_______.

23. Language has many functions. We can use language to talk about itself. This function is __________.

24. Theory that primitive man made involuntary vocal noises while performing heavy work has been called the ___yo-he-ho_______ theory.

25. Linguistics is the __systematic________ study of language.

26. Modern linguistics is __________ in the sense that the linguist tries to discover what language is rather than lay down some rules for people to observe.

27. One general principle of linguistic analysis is the primacy of __________ over writing.

28. The description of a language as it changes through time is a __________ study.

29. Saussure put forward two important concepts. __________ refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all members of a speech community.

30. Linguistic potential is similar to Saussure’s langue and Chomsky’s __________.

IV. Explain the following terms, using examples. (20%)

31. Design feature

32. Displacement

33. Competence

34. Synchronic linguistics

V. Answer the following questions. (20%)

35. Why do people take duality as one of the important design features of human language? Can you tell us what language will be if it has no such design feature? (南开大学,2004)35.

Duality makes our language productive. A large number of different units can be formed out of a small number of elements –for instance, tens of thousands of words out of a small set of sounds, around 48 in the case of the English language. And out of the huge number of words, there can be astronomical number of possible sentences and phrases, which in turn can combine to form unlimited number of texts. Most animal communication systems do not have this design feature of human language.

If language has no such design feature, then it will be like animal communicational system which will be highly limited. It cannot produce a very large number of sound combinations, e.g. words, which are distinct in meaning.

Chapter 2 Speech Sounds

I. Choose the best answer. (20%)

1. Pitch variation is known as __________ when its patterns are imposed on sentences.

A. intonation

B. tone

C. pronunciation

D. voice

2. Conventionally a __________ is put in slashes (/ /).

A. allophone

B. phone

C. phoneme

D. morpheme

3. An aspirated p, an unaspirated p and an unreleased p are __________ of the p phoneme.

A. analogues

B. tagmemes

C. morphemes

D. allophones

4. The opening between the vocal cords is sometimes referred to as __________.

A. glottis

B. vocal cavity

C. pharynx

D. uvula

6. A phoneme is a group of similar sounds called __________.

A. minimal pairs

B. allomorphs

C. phones

D. allophones

7. Which branch of phonetics concerns the production of speech sounds?

A. Acoustic phonetics

B. Articulatory phonetics

C. Auditory phonetics

D. None of the above

8. Which one is different from the others according to places of articulation?

A. [n]

B. [m]

C. [ b ]

D. [p]

9. Which vowel is different from the others according to the characteristics of vowels?

A. [i:]

B. [ u ]

C. [e]

D. [ i ]

10. What kind of sounds can we make when the vocal cords are vibrating?

A. V oiceless

B. V oiced

C. Glottal stop

D. Consonant

II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. (10%)

11. Suprasegmental phonology refers to the study of phonological properties of units larger than the segment-phoneme, such as syllable, word and sentence.

12. The air stream provided by the lungs has to undergo a number of modification to acquire the quality of a speech sound.

14. [p] is a voiced bilabial stop.

15. Acoustic phonetics is concerned with the perception of speech sounds.

16. All syllables must have a nucleus but not all syllables contain an onset and a coda.

17.When pure vowels or monophthongs are pronounced, no vowel glides take place.

18. According to the length or tenseness of the pronunciation, vowels can be divided into tense vs. lax or long vs. short.

III. Fill in the blanks. (20%)

21. Consonant sounds can be either __________ or __________, while all vowel sounds are __________.

23. The qualities of vowels depend upon the position of the __________ and the lips.

25. Consonants differ from vowels in that the latter are produced without __________.

26. In phonological analysis the words fail / veil are distinguishable simply because of the two phonemes /f/ - /v/. This is an example for illustrating __________.

27. In English there are a number of __________, which are produced by moving from one vowel position to another through intervening positions.

28. __________ refers to the phenomenon of sounds continually show the influence of their neighbors.

29. __________ is the smallest linguistic unit.

IV. Explain the following terms, using examples. (20%)

31. Sound assimilation

32. Suprasegmental feature

33. Complementary distribution

34. Distinctive features

V. Answer the following questions. (20%)

35. What is acoustic phonetics?(中国人民大学,2003)

36. What are the differences between voiced sounds and voiceless sounds in terms of articulation?(南开大学,2004)

VI. Analyze the following situation. (20%)

37. Write the symbol that corresponds to each of the following phonetic descriptions; then give an English word that contains this sound. Example: voiced alveolar stop [d] dog. (青岛海洋大学,1999)

(1) voiceless bilabial unaspirated stop

(2) low front vowel

(3) lateral liquid

(4) velar nasal

(5) voiced interdental fricative

32. Suprasegmental feature: The phonetic features that occur above the level of the segments are called suprasegmental features; these are the phonological properties of such units as the syllable, the word, and the sentence. The main suprasegmental ones includes stress, intonation, and tone.

33. Complementary distribution: The different allophones of the same phoneme never occur in the same phonetic context. When two or more allophones of one phoneme never occur in the same linguistic environment they are said to be in complementary distribution.

34. Distinctive features: It refers to the features that can distinguish one phoneme from another. If we can group the phonemes into two categories: one with this feature and the other without, this feature is called a distinctive feature.

V. 35.

Acoustic phonetics deals with the transmission of speech sounds through the air. When a speech sound is produced it causes minor air disturbances (sound waves). Various instruments are used to measure the characteristics of these sound waves.

36. When the vocal cords are spread apart, the air from the lungs passes between them unimpeded. Sounds produced in this way are described as voiceless; consonants [p, s, t] are produced in this way. But when the vocal cords are drawn together, the air from the lungs repeatedly pushes them apart as it passes through, creating a vibration effect. Sounds produced in this way are described as voiced. [b, z, d] are voiced consonants.