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新视野三版 读写2 U1 TextA 课文详解

新视野三版读写B2U1TextA

An impressive English lesson

1If I am the only parent who still corrects his child's English,then perhaps my son is right.To him,I am a tedious oddity:a father he is obliged to listen to and a man absorbed in the rules of grammar,which my son seems allergic to.

2I think I got serious about this only recently when I ran into one of my former students,fresh from an excursion to Europe."How was it?"I asked,full of earnest anticipation.

3She nodded three or four times,searched the heavens for the right words, and then exclaimed,"It was,like,whoa!"

4And that was it.The civilization of Greece and the glory of Roman architecture were captured in a condensed non-statement.My student's"whoa!"was exceeded only by my head-shaking distress.

5There are many different stories about the downturn in the proper use of English.Surely students should be able to distinguish between their/there/they're or the distinctive difference between complimentary and complementary.They unfairly bear the bulk of the criticism for these knowledge deficits because there is a sense that they should know better.

6Students are not dumb,but they are being misled everywhere they look and listen.For example,signs in grocery stores point them to the stationary,even though the actual stationery items—pads,albums and notebooks—are not nailed down.Friends and loved ones often proclaim they've just ate when,in fact,they've just eaten.Therefore,it doesn't make any sense to criticize our students.

7Blame for the scandal of this language deficit should be thrust upon our schools,which should be setting high standards of English language proficiency.Instead,they only teach a little grammar and even less advanced vocabulary.Moreover,the younger teachers themselves evidently have little knowledge of these vital structures of language because they also went without exposure to them.Schools fail to adequately teach the essential framework of language,accurate grammar and proper vocabulary,while they should take the responsibility of pushing the young onto the path of competent communication.

8Since grammar is boring to most of the young students,I think that it must be handled delicately,step by step.The chance came when one day I was driving with my son.As we set out on our trip,he noticed a bird in jerky flight and said, "It's flying so unsteady."I carefully asked,"My son,how is the bird flying?""What's wrong?Did I say anything incorrectly?"He got lost."Great! You said incorrectly instead of incorrect.We use adverbs to describe verbs. Therefore,it's flying so unsteadily but not so unsteady."

9Curious about my correction,he asked me what an adverb was.Slowly,I said,"It's a word that tells you something about a verb."It led to his asking me what a verb was.I explained,"Verbs are action words;for example,Dad drives the truck.Drive is the verb because it's the thing Dad is doing."

10He became attracted to the idea of action words,so we listed a few more:fly,swim,dive,run.Then,out of his own curiosity,he asked me if other words had names for their use and functions.This led to a discussion of nouns, adjectives,and articles.Within the span of a10-minute drive,he had learned from scratch to the major parts of speech in a sentence.It was painless learning and great fun!

11Perhaps,language should be looked upon as a road map and a valuable possession:often study the road map(check grammar)and tune up the car engine(adjust vocabulary).Learning grammar and a good vocabulary is just like driving with a road map in a well-conditioned car.

12The road map provides the framework and guidance you need for your trip, but it won't tell you exactly what trees or flowers you will see,what kind of people you will encounter,or what types of feelings you will be experiencing on your journey.Here,the vocabulary makes the journey's true colors come alive!A good vocabulary enables you to enjoy whatever you see as you drive along.Equipped with grammar and a good vocabulary,you have flexibility and excellent control.While the road map guides your journey to your destination, an excellent vehicle helps you to fully enjoy all of the sights,sounds and experiences along the way.

13Effective,precise,and beneficial communication depends upon grammar and a good vocabulary,the two essential assets for students,but they are not being taught in schools.

14Just this morning,my son and I were eating breakfast when I attempted to add milk to my tea."Dad,"he said,"If I were you,I wouldn't do that.It's sour." 15"Oh my!"I said,swelling with pride toward my son,"That's a grammatically perfect sentence.You used were instead of was."

16"I know,I know,"he said with a long agreeable sigh."It's the subjunctive mood."

17I was,like,whoa!

Language Points:

1If I am the only parent who still corrects his child’s English,then perhaps my son is right.To him,I am a tedious oddity:a father he is obliged to listen to and a man absorbed in the rules of grammar,which my son seems allergic to.(Para.1) Meaning:My son is probably right if there is no other parent like me who still corrects his child’s mistakes in English.To my son,I am a boring and strange father,who he has to listen to;I am also the one who pays lots of attention to grammar rules,which he doesn’t seem to like.

oddity:n.[C]a strange or unusual person or thing怪人;怪物;奇特的东西

With his neat suits on,he felt like an oddity walking in this poor neighborhood.穿着笔挺的西装走在这个贫民区里,他觉得自己就像个怪物。

Usage note:oblige

The word oblige is most commonly used in the expression be/feel obliged.

1be/feel obliged to do sth.指“感到有责任做某事”。例如:

He felt obliged to help his mother,even if it meant leaving college.他觉得有责任帮助母亲,即使这意味着他要离开大学。

2be/feel obliged to sb./sth.指“对某人或某事心存感激”。例如:

Thank you very much,doctor.I am extremely obliged to you.医生,非常谢谢您。对您,我深表感谢。

2I think I got serious about this only recently when I ran into one of my former students,fresh from an excursion to Europe.(Para.2)

Meaning:I think I started to pay attention to other people’s usage of grammar only lately, when I happened to meet one of my former students,who had just returned from a short journey to Europe.

3“How was it?”I asked,full of earnest anticipation.(Para.2)

Meaning:When I asked about how her trip to Europe had been,I was expecting her response anxiously and sincerely.

How was it?:(spoken)often used in conversation to ask sb.about their opinion or experience of sth.怎么样?(口语常用表达,用于询问看法或经历)

Did you watch the movie last night?How was it?你昨天晚上看那部电影了吗?感觉怎么

样?

I was told that you had traveled to many places in Asia recently.How was it?有人告诉我你最近跑了亚洲的很多地方,旅行怎么样?

full of:(followed by abstract nouns)feeling or showing a lot of particular emotion or quality(感觉、表达或表现出)充满某种情感(特质)的

full of excitement/energy/hope/happiness/praise充满兴奋/活力/希望/幸福/赞美

The teacher was full of praise for the homework that the students had done.老师对学生们完成的功课赞不绝口。

Lucy is a happy child and always full of life.露西是个快乐的孩子,总是充满了活力。

4She nodded three or four times,searched the heavens for the right words,and then exclaimed,“It was,like,whoa!”(Para.3)

Meaning:She nodded her head three or four times,tried to find the right words in her mind,and then shouted with excitement,“It was,like,whoa!”

Meaning beyond words:Since the student was not quite sure how to exactly describe her travel experience,the tone of the author is somewhat sarcastic.The author intended to send out the message that the student was incompetent regarding the selection of her English vocabulary.

search somewhere for sth.:try to find sth.in some place在某地方搜寻某物

The robber reached out and searched the back pocket of my trousers for anything valuable.那个盗贼伸手搜我裤子后面的口袋以寻找值钱的东西。

Note:The heavens means“the sky”.Here“search the heavens for the right words”implies the student tried hard to find suitable words to describe what she saw and experienced when traveling in Europe.

Usage note:search,search for

1search:look through检查;搜查

They searched the man in front of me from head to foot.他们把我前面的男子从头到脚搜查了一遍。

They searched everybody’s luggage.他们检查了每个人的行李。

2search for:look for寻找;搜寻

The customs were searching for drugs at the airport.海关人员在机场搜查毒品。

Note:“It was,like,whoa!”means“It was really great!”.“It was like…”is an informal expression in conversation,very common for young people who are lazy and incapable to reference their ideas.The expression is usually followed by an adjective or an exclamation.

It was,like,marvelous!简直奇妙极了!

(It was like)Whoa!How come you got a hundred percent correct on such a hard test?哇!

这么难的考试你怎么都全答对了?

Note:Whoa is specifically used to show that people are surprised or think something is very impressive.It can be used in different contexts.For example:

﹒To describe something that you’re not quite sure how to describe:That car is so cool, it’s like,whoa.

﹒To express surprise:Whoa!It’s really amazing!

﹒To indicate a desire to end what someone is talking:Whoa,OK,that’s enough.

5And that was it.(Para.4)

Meaning:And that was everything she said,without even mentioning any details of her wonderful experience in Europe.

That was it.:often used in conversation to say that sth.is completely finished or that a situation cannot be changed就这样(指某事彻底结束或形势不能更改)

That was it.I could no longer hope for a promotion,and my boss didn’t even want to see me again.就这样吧,我的升职再也没指望了,我的老板甚至不想再见到我。

That’s it.There is nothing more we can do.就这样吧,我们也再没有别的办法。

6The civilization of Greece and the glory of Roman architecture were captured in a condensed non-statement.(Para.4)

Meaning:The civilization of Greece and the glory of Roman architecture were just described in one word rather than a complete statement because of her inability to choose appropriate words to express herself.

7My student’s“whoa!”was exceeded only by my head-shaking distress.(Para.4) Meaning:My head-shaking distress at her inability to express properly was even greater than her slang term whoa,one word,which did not make any statement to describe the civilization of Greece and the glory of Roman architecture.

Meaning beyond words:The word exceed states explicitly that the author’s worry about his student’s language inability was much more intense than her excitement.

8There are many different stories about the downturn in the proper use of English. (Para.5)

Meaning:There are a lot of different stories about why more and more people are less and less skilled when using English.

downturn:n.[C,usu.sing.]a process in which business activity,production,etc.is reduced and conditions become worse衰退;下降

The downturn in the auto industry affected the entire economy of the United States.汽车工业的衰退影响了整个美国的经济。

9Surely students should be able to distinguish between their/there/they’re or the distinctive difference between complimentary and complementary.(Para.5) Meaning:Of course,students should be able to recognize and understand the differences between their/there/they’re or the obvious difference

between complimentary and complementary.

Usage note:distinguished,distinctive,distinct

这三个词词形相近,但意思有很大的差别,不能互换使用。

1distinguished指“卓越的;杰出的;著名的”。例如:

His grandfather had been a distinguished university professor.他的祖父曾是一位杰出的大学教授。

2distinctive指“(特征、性格或外表)独特的,有明显不同的”。强调“表示差别的”、“有特色的”、“特殊的”。例如:

Irene had a very distinctive voice.艾琳有一个非常独特的声音。

Can you find the distinctive watermarks of this stamp?你能看到这枚邮票上明显的水印吗?

Pupils in Hong Kong usually have distinctive badges on their school uniforms.在香港,小学生的校服上常戴有颇具特色的徽章。

3distinct表示“分明的;明了的;清楚的”。例如:

I have the distinct feeling that my friend did not realize what was happening.我明显感到我朋友并未察觉所发生的一切。

The photo you took in Hong Kong Cultural Centre is not distinct enough.你在香港文化中心拍的那张照片不够清晰。

She has a distinct pronunciation.她的发音清楚。

There is a distinct smell of smoke in my room.我的房间里有一股明显的香烟味。distinct的另一个词义是“明显不同的;有区别的”。例如:

Our interests were quite distinct from those of them.我们的兴趣与他们的兴趣截然不同。现将distinct和distinctive用在一个句子里,以便区分:

One of the distinctive features of this book is its distinct illustrations.这本书很明显的特点之一就是其具有清楚明了的图解。

10They unfairly bear the bulk of the criticism for these knowledge deficits because there is a sense that they should know better.(Para.5)

Meaning:Just because they are assumed to learn better,students unfairly become the

main target of the criticism for their insufficient knowledge.

Note:The word deficit is mainly used in the second meaning(赤字;亏损;逆差).

11Students are not dumb,but they are being misled everywhere they look and listen.(Para.6)

Meaning:Students are not stupid.However,they mistakenly learn whatever they see and hear in their language environment.

Note:Here,“…they are being misled”is used for emphasis,emphasizing an on-going situation of“being misled”.

12For example,signs in grocery stores point them to the stationary,even though the actual stationery items—pads,albums and notebooks—are not nailed down. (Para.6)

Meaning:For example,signs of merchandise in grocery stores lead students to the “stationary”department selling stationery like pads,albums and notebooks.However, these displayed stationery items are movable,but not nailed down.

Meaning beyond words:Taking the wrong spelled signs in grocery stores as an example,the author argues that it is not student’s fault.The verb phrase nail down is cleverly used to describe the funny situation:Movable“stationery”items are under the sign of unmovable“stationary”,a distinct spelling mistake between the two words.

13Friends and loved ones often proclaim they’ve just ate when,in fact,they’ve just eaten.(Para.6)

Meaning:Friends and loved ones often make mistakes when speaking English.For example,they say publicly they’ve just ate but actually they should say they’ve just eaten. Usage note:proclaim,claim

1proclaim是正式宣告或公开宣告,“宣告”的中文意思比“声明”要严肃。例如:

The government has proclaimed a new law.政府已公布了一项新法令。

They proclaimed that he was a traitor.他们宣称他是叛徒。

The ringing bells proclaimed the birth of the prince.响亮的钟声宣布了王子的诞生。

2claim是根据权利声明,根据权利要求索赔,根据权利认领。

1)声称;断言;主张。例如:

They claim to have discovered a cure for the disease.他们声称已经发现了治疗此病的方法。

She claimed that the ring was stolen,not lost.她声言那只戒指是被偷的,而不是遗失的。

2)要求;索赔。例如:

The old man claimed the land.老人要求得到这块土地。

I claim payment from my friend.我要求我的朋友付款。

14Therefore,it doesn’t make any sense to criticize our students.(Para.6) Meaning:So,there’s no good reason to criticize our students at all because it’s unfair to blame them.

15Blame for the scandal of this language deficit should be thrust upon our schools, which should be setting high standards of English language proficiency.(Para.7) Meaning:Our schools should be blamed for the shocking situation of students’insufficient language skills.It’s their responsibility to establish high standards of English language abilities.

16Instead,they only teach a little grammar and even less advanced vocabulary. (Para.7)

Meaning:Contrary to what the schools should do,they only teach a minimum amount of grammar and far from enough advanced vocabulary.

17Moreover,the younger teachers themselves evidently have little knowledge of these vital structures of language because they also went without exposure to them. (Para.7)

Meaning:In addition,the young teachers obviously know little about these important structures of language since they also didn’t have the chance to deal with them in their prior learning experiences.

Usage note:moreover,however,consequently,also,etc.

Moreover在句中用作连接副词,用于表示补充或增加信息,类似的连接副词还有therefore, however,also,furthermore等,表因果、转折、递进等。这类词可以位于句首,也可以位于句中。例如:

She saw that there was indeed a man immediately behind her.Moreover,he was observing her strangely.她看到确实有一个人紧跟在她身后。并且,他还在怪异地观察着她。

The rent is too high,and,moreover,the house is too far from the city center.房子的租金太高了,而且,离市中心太远了。

The harmful effect of the dry weather on wild flowers,however,has been enormous.可是,干燥的天气对野生花卉的有害影响是巨大的。

He has seen the situation before and has consequently developed a feeling for what will happen next.他以前见过此情形,所以知道接下来会发生什么。

His first book was published in1932,and it was followed by a series of novels.He also wrote a book on British pubs.他的第一本书于1932年出版,接着他出版了一系列的小说。他还写了一本有关英国酒吧的书。

Note:exposure是动词expose的名词形式,动词expose常用于短语be/get exposed to 中,表示“接触;体验”。例如:

Some children are never exposed to classical music.有些孩子从来没有接触过古典音乐。Having been exposed to all kinds of dangers in the forest,the girl felt helpless and began to cry.那个女孩在森林里体验了各种危险后,感到很无助,就哭了起来。

18Schools fail to adequately teach the essential framework of language,accurate grammar and proper vocabulary,while they should take the responsibility of pushing the young onto the path of competent communication.(Para.7)

Meaning:Although schools are responsible for preparing students for effective communication,they are unable to sufficiently teach the basic concepts of language—grammar and vocabulary.

Usage note:adequate,abundant

1adequate表示“在数量或质量上足以满足特定的标准”,强调刚好够用、没有多余。例如:He doesn’t earn a large salary but it is adequate for his needs.他挣钱不多,但也够用了。2abundant表示“充裕;绰绰有余”,强调数量很多或充足有余。例如:

We have abundant proof of his guilt.我们有他犯罪的充分证据。

Collocation note:

In Paragraph7,we have two collocation pairs with the same word:advanced/proper vocabulary for our attention.

19Since grammar is boring to most of the young students,I think that it must be handled delicately,step by step.(Para.8)

Meaning:As grammar is boring and dull to most of the young students,I think it should be taught carefully and skillfully,bit by bit.

20The chance came when one day I was driving with my son.As we set out on our trip,he noticed a bird in jerky flight and said,“It’s flying so unsteady.”(Para.8) Meaning:The opportunity to teach him English came when we were both on a car heading for our trip.On seeing a bird flying unsteadily,he commented that the bird was flying“unsteady”.

21I carefully asked,“My son,how is the bird flying?”“What’s wrong?Did I say anything incorrectly?”He got lost.“Great!You said incorrectly instead of incorrect.

We use adverbs to describe verbs.Therefore,it’s flying so unsteadily but not so unsteady.”(Para.8)

Meaning:On hearing what he said,I asked him cautiously how the bird was flying.My son didn’t have any idea about what was wrong,so he asked if he said anything incorrectly.By praising his correct use of incorrectly,I explained that unsteady is improperly used because an adverb is needed to describe a verb.

Meaning beyond words:From“I carefully asked”and“Great”we can see the way the father used to correct his son’s grammatical mistake is very encouraging.

22Curious about my correction,he asked me what an adverb was.Slowly,I said,“It’s a word that tells you something about a verb.”It led to his asking me what a verb was.I explained,“Verbs are action words;for example,Dad drives the

truck.Drive is the verb because it’s the thing Dad is doing.”(Para.9)

Meaning:Fascinated by my correction,he wondered what an adverb was.After he got the answer,he went on with the question of a verb.To explain vividly to him,I used the example of driving:an action I am doing.

Meaning beyond words:The boy was very alert to something new or interesting. Learning grammar is not necessarily boring.

23Then,out of his own curiosity,he asked me if other words had names for their use and functions.(Para.10)

Meaning:After that,because of his curiosity,he asked me if other words also had specific names for their use and the roles they play.

24Within the span of a10-minute drive,he had learned from scratch to the major parts of speech in a sentence.It was painless learning and great fun!(Para.10) Meaning:Within10minutes riding in the car with me,he had learned from zero to understanding the main parts of speech in a sentence.Learning grammar is interesting rather than painful or boring!

25Perhaps,language should be looked upon as a road map and a valuable possession:often study the road map(check grammar)and tune up the car engine (adjust vocabulary).Learning grammar and a good vocabulary is just like driving with a road map in a well-conditioned car.(Para.11)

Meaning:Maybe,you should regard language as a road map and a very precious property you have.You should often look at the road map(review grammar)and make small changes to your car engine(improve vocabulary).

Meaning beyond words:The road map and the car are used metaphorically to mean that grammar and vocabulary are powerful devices that will enable you to freely explore in the language world.

Usage note:adjust,adapt

1当表示“适应…环境”时,adjust和adapt差不多。常与to搭配。可以说adjust(sth./oneself) to sth.和adapt(sth./oneself)to sth.。其中adjust和adapt互为同义词。例如:

Once you get to the United States,you will have to adjust yourself to a completely new lifestyle.一旦你到了美国,你就需要进行调整,以适应美国全新的生活方式。

The children found it hard to adapt to the new school.这些孩子们发现很难适应这所新学校。

The body adjusts itself to changes of temperature.身体会自行适应温度的变化。Intelligence seeks to grasp,manipulate,re-order,and adjust,while intellect examines, ponders,wonders,theorizes,criticizes and imagines.智力寻求的是理解、运用、整合和调节,而才学是审视、思考、探究、形成理论、批判和想象。

2adjust作及物动词用时,还有“调节;使…适合;校准”之意,而adapt不表示此意。例如:adjust a radio(dial)调准收音机的选台指针

adjust color on a TV调整电视的色彩

adjust one’s tie in a mirror照镜子整理领带

adjust a telescope to one’s eyes调节望远镜使之适合眼睛观看

adjust a clock调准时钟

3adapt作及物动词时,还有“(改装)使适合;改编”之意,其同义词是modify,不是adjust。例如:

These teaching materials can be adapted for older children.这些教材修订一下可以给大

一点的孩子用。

He adapted his old car engine to the boat.他把他的旧汽车上的引擎用到那只船上。

26The road map provides the framework and guidance you need for your trip,but it won’t tell you exactly what trees or flowers you will see,what kind of people you

will encounter,or what types of feelings you will be experiencing on your journey. (Para.12)

Meaning beyond words:The road map can only give you the direction you need for your trip,but it’s impossible for you to predict what kind of trip it will be ahead of you.

27Here,the vocabulary makes the journey’s true colors come alive!(Para.12) Meaning beyond words:Vocabulary is considered as the beautiful sceneries along the way of the trip.The implied meaning is that vocabulary is as important as grammar.

28Equipped with grammar and a good vocabulary,you have flexibility and excellent control.(Para.12)

Meaning beyond words:Just as traveling with a road map and a good car,with the help of grammar knowledge and a large vocabulary,you will feel more comfortable and confident when using the English language.

29While the road map guides your journey to your destination,an excellent vehicle helps you to fully enjoy all of the sights,sounds and experiences along the way. (Para.12)

Meaning:Though the road map leads you to the place where you want to go,the

well-conditioned/well-tuned car(vocabulary)enables you to completely enjoy your trip along the road.

Sentence structure note:while

While can be used in a clause to introduce information which contrasts with information in the main clause.For example:

While most people look forward to retirement,some cannot bear the thought of becoming professionally inactive.虽然大多数人盼望退休,可有些人想到没了工作就受不了。While an effective language teacher can maximize students’learning,a committed student can always enjoy learning.虽然一个有效的语言老师能让学生最大限度地学到东西,但是一个孜孜不倦的学生总是能对学习乐此不彼。

The south of the country grows richer and richer,while the north grows poorer and poorer.这个国家的南方越来越富,但是北方却越来越穷。

30Effective,precise,and beneficial communication depends upon grammar and a good vocabulary,the two essential assets for students,but they are not being taught in schools.(Para.13)

Meaning:Grammar and a good vocabulary are the two basic and valuable tools that help students to achieve successful,exact,and favorable communication,but unfortunately students are not being taught how to use them in schools.

Note:beneficial常与to连用,引出对谁有利、有帮助、有用。例如:

Cycling is highly beneficial to health and the environment.骑自行车对身体和环境都大有裨益。

Collocation note:

In Paragraph7,we have come across competent communication and here we

have precise communication and beneficial communication.In Paragraph2of Text B careful readers will not miss adequate communication skills.For more collocation pairs, please refer to the notes on collocation for this unit.

31Just this morning,my son and I were eating breakfast when I attempted to add milk to my tea.“Dad,”he said,“If I were you,I wouldn’t do that.It’s sour.”(Para.14) Meaning:While having breakfast this morning,I tried to pour some milk into my tea but my son stopped me,saying that he wouldn’t do that because it tasted sour.

32“Oh my!”I said,swelling with pride toward my son,“That’s a grammatically perfect sentence.You used were instead of was.”(Para.15)

Meaning beyond words:The father was extremely happy and impressed by his son’s good English.

Note:“Oh my!”is often heard in an informal conversation.Not infrequently,you also hear people say“Oh my goodness!”or“Oh my Gosh!”.All these can be used when people show surprise,excitement,boredom,or distress.The sense can be either positive or negative,and it is based on the speaker’s tone and the situation in which it is used.

33“I know,I know,”he said with a long agreeable sigh.“It’s the subjunctive mood.”(Para.16)

Meaning:With a slow and deep breath,my son pleasantly said that he knew it’s the subjunctive mood in grammar.

34I was,like,whoa!(Para.17)

Meaning:I was really surprised and impressed by my son’s grammar knowledge. Meaning beyond words:The father was very proud of his son.The expression used here is to contrast with the one said at the beginning of the text when the author describes the incapability of the student’s language.Though both are in a surprised tone,the purposes are apparently different.

By returning to the phrase from the beginning of the text:“…,like,whoa!”,the father is playing ball with this“condensed non-statement”.Using this word at the end of the text, therefore,reflects the author’s skillfully expressed humor.