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全国 2019 年 4 月高等教育自学考试


课程代码: 00595



The following comprehension questions are based on the texts you have learned, and each

of them is provided with 4 choices marked A,B,C and D. Choose the best answer to each question and write the corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET.(20 points, 1 point


1.In Gifts of the Magi , the two possessions Mr. and Mrs. Young took great pride in are ().

A . Jim ’ s watch and Della’ s hair

B . Jim ’ s watch and Dell’ s combs

C. Della ’ s combs and Jim’-chainswatch

D . Della ’ s hair and Jim’-chainswatch

2.In No Marriage, No Apologies,Mrs. Frishberg said, “ I ’ m not against the institution of marriage. We just never get around to it. ”The underlined sentence means.

A . we never have the courage to face the problem directly

B . we never go so far as to consider the matter

C. we never overcome the obstacles of marriage

D . we never finish discussing the problem with each other

3.Lisabetta’ hersbrotdecided to put an end to her secret love affair by killing Lorenzo because they.

A . thought that he would snatch their beautiful sister away from them

B . considered the secret love affair a shame to the family

C. worried that Lorenzo would inherit the family fortune

D . looked upon Lorenzo as inferior to them in social rank

4.The Wife of Bath intends to show with her tale that.

A . men should be obedient to their wives

B . knights should be loyal to the King and the Queen

C. women should be obedient to their husbands

D . husbands should be young and loving

5.In Mark Twain The’sCelebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County , Simon Wheeler is.

A . a good-natured and extremely talkative old man

B . fond of making fun of people with his long tales

C. most curious about betting and dog fight

D . a well-trained frog and the best jumper in Calaveras County


6.According to The value of Education , our purpose of educating children is to.

A . choose a proper system of education

B . educate them only for the aim of educating them

C. accustom them to varied life

D . make them intelligent citizens

7.The child in A Day ’sWait kept tight control over himself throughout the day because he.

A . was afraid that he would die if he lost control over himself

B . thought he was going to die and he must show courage in the face of death

C. wanted to recover quickly so that he could go hunting with his father

D . did not want to be a bother to and a burden on others

8.Rip Van Winkle is taken from The Sketch Book, a collection of essays, sketches, and tales written by.

A . Benjamin Franklin B. Thomas Paine

C. Washington Irving D. O.Henry

9.According to the passage English World-wide , many Third World people oppose the use of English in their countries because.

A . they consider it a form of cultural imperialism

B . the English language has produced racism

C. other languages are easier to learn

D . they are against modernization in general

10.Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, summed up the four chief qualities of money some 2,000

years ago as being durable, distinct,and portable.

A . divisible B. definite

C. deficient D. decisive

11.In New Applications , the illegal plan first came to Miriam when she discovered by accident


A . Al Cropin’ s grand scheme was not practic l

B . the home-type computer improved the market conditions

C. the latest version of home-type computers was actually compatible with the one in her

office D . everyone could use the terms to refer to the computer and its application software

12.According to The Story of the Bible , Noah ’ s drunkenness and behavior most probably reflect


A . people easily forgot their past mistakes

B . people tended to enjoy a peaceful life

C. Noah wanted to escape from his loneliness

D . Noah lacked the companionship of his children

13.The Statue of Liberty reminds people of all the following EXCEPT.

A . American democracy


B . friendship between America and France

C. the support of France

D . the journey of pilgrims

14.According to the information in Gateway to the USA, New York City was a bitter disillusionment to

some immigrants in that.

A . it turned out to be a wretched place

B . there was no gold in the city

C. the competition was severe in the city

D . there was the language problem

15.It can be concluded from the story The Perfect Match that.

A . computers can be used to make every decision in people’ s lives

B . natural interactions are essential for human beings

C. marriage brings unexpected changes in people’ s lives

D . people tend to hide their true feeling before marriage

16.From about the 5th century through the 15th century, Latin was regarded as all of the following


A . the most suitable language in the world

B . the second language of educated people in Europe

C. a subject taught in schools and in colleges

D . the language of the church

17.In style, the story True Love is.

A . a real love story B. an autobiography

C. a journalistic report D. a satirical fantasy

18.In Bricks from the Tower of the Babel, the writer Jessica Davidson provides a detailed

explanation for.

A . the construction of the tower

B . the structure and sound system of Esperanto

C. internationalization of some natural languages

D . the Indo-European language family

19.According to The Merchant of Venice , all the following words can be used to describe Portia


A . wise

B .courageous

C. merciful D. cautious

20.Hollywood became an ideal site for shooting motion pictures chiefly because.

A . most of the glamorous movie stars lived there

B . famous film corporations operated there

C. the climate there was sunny and mild

D . the studio chiefs liked it very much



In this part there are 4 reading passages followed by 20 questions or unfinished statements. For

each of them there are 4 choices marked A,B,C and D. You should decide

on the best answer or the best choice to complete the statement and write the corresponding

letter on the ANSWER SHEET.(40 points, 2 points each)

Passage 1

When you ’ re negotiating with someone, listen for the messages that he or shemight be sending to

you. For example, the word“ difficult” does not mean the same as impossible. Imagine you’ re staying in a hotel, and you want to change your room. The manager“ That’wouldsanswerb of,

very difficult, sir ”,does not mean that he is saying“ no.” It just means that he wants to know

what you are prepared to offer him in return for the change of room.

If you are buying a new car, and want to pay less than the price being asked, then the salesman

comment, “ I ’ m sorry, but we never negotiateon the price”, means that they do negotiate on other

things, like the delivery time, or the “ extra” that might be available as part of the purchase. In the

same car showroom, if the salesman says, “ Sorry, I can ’ t negotiate prices”,then your

response should be to ask who can. The message the salesman is sending suggests that his boss is

the one you need to be talking to.

In all of these situations, the message is never communicated in clear terms. In any negotiation,

the two “ players” wish to get as much out of it as they can, of course. In the three examples

above, the salesmen and the hotel manager are hoping that you will accept their price or conditions

— but their “ messages” make it clear that there may be room for movement and compromise. In

a successful negotiation, the two sides move towards each other and reach agreement on conditions

that satisfy both sides.

21.The hotel manager’ s answer“That would be very difficult, sir” implies.

A . you can change the room if you find some excuse

B . someone else has paid more for the room under discussion

C. the room is available if an extra sum of money is offered

D . someone else has booked the room in return for more money

22.When the salesmen tell you that they never negotiate on the price, you can.

A . negotiate the price with the manager

B . demand to see the one who can

C. find out other possibilities in the purchase

D . accept the price without any further negotiation

23.This passage is intended for.

A . managers B. customers


C. salesmen D. scholars

24.The passage tells us how to.

A . send massages in a negotiation

B . become a successful salesman

C. profit from business transactions

D . receive messages in a negotiation

25.It can be safely concluded from the passage that.

A . at least two players should be in the room for communication

B . a lot can be inferred from what is actually stated in a negotiation

C. you should never communicate your ideas in clear terms

D . you should play the roles of a salesman and manager in a negotiation

Passage 2

Following football hero O.J.Simpson’ s arrest in June 1994 for the murder-wifeofhisandex one

of her friends, Newsweek and Time magazines ran the same police mug shot of Simpson on their covers. Newweek’s version was a straight reproduction. Time electronically manipulated the photo

to darken it and achieve a gloomy and threatening look that emphasized Simpson ’unshaven cheeks and African-American skin color. The alteration offended many readers and raised an increasingly familiar question: In an age of computer-controlled images, can anyone still trust a photograph?

Altering a digitized image( 数码技术相片), as Time did for its cover, has been one of the fastest-growing, most far-reaching, and most controversial(有争议的) techniques in contemporary photography. With this method a photograph is scanned(扫描), digitized (converted into a set of numeric values), and entered into a computer from which the operator can control the image almost in any way imaginable: add, delete, or change the position of visual elements; modify tones and colors; create montages; combine photographs; and even create entirely imaginary scenes. The digitized image can be stored in a data base, output as a print( 底片 ) or transparency( 透明胶片 ), or converted for video-screen display.

Electronic image manipulation arrived in force in the 1980s with a new type of computers that cost on the order of $500,000 or more and occupied and entire room. More compact and far less expensive desktop systems soon appeared, capable of, at least, limited image control and available at chain-store prices.

The ever-rising flood of digitized visual information may not, as some critics fear, fatally destroy

the certainty of photographic evidence. Yet many observers agree that both suppliers and consumers of photographic information must exercise greater care than before to tell fact from falsehood in the images they use.


26.Which of the following magazines was accused of distorting the murderer ’photographs by many readers?

A . Time.B. Newsweek.

C. Washington Post.D. Not mentioned in the passage

27.Nowadays, electronic image alterations are.

A . unbearably expensive

B . more expensive in the States

C. only available in chain stores

D . far less expensive than before

28.The digitized alteration technique is.

A . developing with great care

B . very capable and developing rapidly

C. strongly criticized due to its easy access

D . fatal in destroying the certainty of photographic evidence

29.According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?

A . With digitized alteration techniques, a photograph may be scanned, digitized and altered.

B . With digitized alteration techniques, the digitized images can be stored in a data base or transformed for video-screen display.

C.With digitized alteration techniques, both suppliers and consumers of photographic

information are able to tell fact from falsehood in the image they use.

D . With digitized alteration techniques, it is possible for the computer operators to control the image almost in any conceivable way.

30.W hat is the author’ s attitude toward the technique of digitized image manipulation?

A . Critical.B. Objective.

C. Indifferent.D. Supportive.

Passage 3

The importance of symbols as a source of cultural diversity can be seen in the dress codes and hairstyles of different societies. In most situations, the symbolism of clothing and hairstyles communicates different messages ranging from political beliefs to identification with specific ethnic or religious groups. The tartan( 格子呢 ) of a Scottish clan, the black leather jacket and long hair of a motorcycle gang member in the United States, and the veil of an Islamic woman in Saudi Arabia provide a symbolic vocabulary that creates cultural diversity.

Many examples of clothing styles could be used to illustrate how symbols are used to produce cultural diversity. Consider, for instance, changing dress codes in the United States. During the 1960s, many young people wore jeans, sandals, and beads to symbolize their rebellion against


what they conceived as the conformist inclinations of American society. By the 1980s, many of the same people were wearing “ power suits” as they sought to advance up the corporate ladder.

An example of how hairstyles can create meaningful symbolic codes can be seen in a group known as the Rastafarians(sometimes known as Rastas or Rastaman) of Jamaica. The majority of the people of Jamaica are of African descent. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, they were brought to Jamaica by European slave traders to work on plantations. The Rastafarians are a specific religious group within Jamaica who believe that Haile Selassie(1892-1975), the former emperor of Ethiopia, whose original name was Ras Tafari, was the black Messiah who appeared in the flesh for the redemption of all blacks exiled in the world of white oppression. Rastafarian religion fuses Old Testament teachings, Christian mysticism, and Afro-Jamaican religious beliefs. The Rastafarian movement originated as a consequence of harsh economic, political, and living conditions in the slums of Jamaica.

In the 1950s, during the early phase of the Rastafarian movement, some male members began to grow their hair in “ locks ” or “ dreadlocks” to symbolize their religious and political commitments. This hairstyle became well known in Western society through reggae( 强节奏黑人音

乐 ) music and Rasta musicians such as the late Bob Marley. Rastafarians derive the symbolism of the dreadlock hairstyle of the Rastafarians from the Bible. They view the unshaven man as the natural man and invoke Samson as one of the most important figures in the Bible. Dreadlocks also reflect a dominant symbol within the Rastafarian movement, the lion, which is associated with Haile Selassie, one of whose titles was the “ Conquering Lion of Judah( 犹大 ).” To simulate the spirit of the lion, some Rastas do not cut their hair, sometimes growing their locks 20 inches or more.

Thus, to a great extent, culture consists of a network of symbolic codes that enhance values, beliefs, worldviews, and ideologies within a society, Humans go to a great length to create symbols that provide meaning for individuals and groups. These symbolic meanings are a powerful source of cultural diversity.

31.What is the main idea of this selection?

A . Hairstyles and dress codes identify political beliefs in diverse societies.

B . The Rastafarian movement symbolized a religious and political commitment.

C. Symbols provide meaning and a satisfaction of biological needs in society.

D .Hairstyles and dress codes can be important symbols of cultural diversity in different societies.

32.The author uses the examples of the Scottish tartan, the motorcycle jacket, and the Islamic veil

to show.

A . the political power of dress codes in different societies


B . the diversity of clothing styles throughout the world

C. dress codes that symbolize different ethnic and religious

groups D . the resistance to change of culturally different groups

33.The author suggests that the young people wearing jeans in the 1960s wore“ power suits” in

the 1980s because.

A . styles changed

B .the American government changed

C. their attitudes and goals changed D. both outfits symbolized rebellion

34.All of the following are true of the Rastafarians EXCEPT.

A . they believe that Emperor Haile Selassie was the black

Messiah B . they are the original natives of Jamaica

C. they are a religious group with political commitments

D . they formed as a result of harsh living conditions in Jamaica

35.The Rastafarian movement began.

A . at the beginning of the nineteenth century

B . around the middle of the twentieth century

C. before European slave traders arrived

D . in the early eighteenth century

Passage 4

A child who has once been pleased with a tale likes, as a rule, to have it retold in identically the same words, but this should not lead parents to treat printed fairy stories as sacred texts. It is always much better to tell a story than read it out of a book, and, if a parent can produce what, in the actual circumstances of the time and the individual child, is an improvement on the printed text, so much the better.

A charge made against fairy tales is that they harm the child by frightening him or arousing his sadistic impulses. To prove the latter, one would have to show in controlled experiment that children who have read fairy stories were more often guilty of cruelty than those who had not. Aggressive, destructive, sadistic(虐待狂的 ) impulses every child has and, on the whole, their symbolic verbal discharge seem to be rather a safety valve than an incitement to overt action. As to fears, there are , I think, well-authenticated cases of children being dangerously terrified by some fairy story. Often, however, this arises from the child having heard the story once. Familiarity with the story by repetition turns the pain of fear into the pleasure of a fear faced and mastered.

There are also people who object to fairy stories on the grounds that they are not objectively true, that giants, witches, two-headed dragons, magic carpets, etc., do not exist; and that, instead of indulging his fantasies in fairy tales, the child should be taught how to adapt to reality by studying history and mechanics. I find such people, I must confess, so unsympathetic and peculiar that I do



not know how to argue with them. If their case were sound, the world should be full of madmen

attempting to fly from New York to Philadelphia on a broomstick or covering a telephone with

kisses in the belief that it was their enchanted girlfriend.

No fairy story ever claimed to be a description of the external world and no sane child has ever

believed that it was.

36.The author considers that a fairy story is more effective when it is .

A . repeated without variation

B .treated with respect

C. adapted by the parent D. set in the present

37.Fairy stories are a means by which children ’ s impulses. may be

A . beneficially channeled

B .given a destructive tendency

C. held back until maturity D. effectively suppressed

38.According to the passage great fear can be stimulated in a child when the story is .

A . in a realistic setting

B .heard for the first time

C. repeated too often D. dramatically told

39.The advantage claimed for repeating a fairy story to young children is that it.

A . makes them come to terms with their fears

B . develops their power of memory

C. convinces them there is nothing to be afraid of

D . encourages them not to have ridiculous beliefs

40.The author’ s mentioning of broomsticks and telephones is meant to suggest that.

A . fairy stories are still being made up

B . there might be confusion about different kinds of truth

C. people try to modernize old fairy stories

D . there is more concern for children’ s fears nowadays


In this part there are 3 reading passages followed by 10 questions or unfinished statements. For

each of them there are 4 answers marked A,B,C and D. Skim or scan the passages, then

decide on the best answer or the best choice to complete the statement and write the

corresponding letter on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points,1 point each)

Passage 1

When we call someone a pig or a swine, we do not mean it as a compliment. But pigs do not

deserve to be used as a symbol for an insult. They are probably not as dirty as they are made out to

be. According to one pig keeper, swine are very clean when allowed to live in a clean environment.

He feels pigs are usually dirty simply because their keepers don ’ t clean their pens. In any case, n one has proven that the pig that wallows in mud prefers that to a cool bath. Furthermore, pigs are

smarter than most wallows in mud prefers that to a cool bath. Furthermore, pigs are smarter than


most people think. Many farmers, for example, have observed that pigs frequently undo complicated bolts on gates in search of adventure or romance. So the next time you call someone a pig, perhaps he or she ought to be someone you wish to praise.

41.This passage deals with.

A . the reasons why pigs are dirty

B . people ’ s wrong perceptions of pigs

C. how to insult or compliment people

D . why people like to keep pigs

42.One pig keeper feels that pigs will stay clean if they are.

A . given cool baths every day

B . praised from time to time

C. kept in a clean environment

D . allowed to seek adventure or romance

43.The detail that pigs “ can undo complicated bolts on gates ” supports the opinion that.

A . pigs sometimes can be adventurous

B . pigs are generally misunderstood by people

C. pigs are also mischievous and romantic

D . pigs are smarter than most people think

Passage 2

The large, gleaming refrigerator is the focal point of most American kitchens. It holds enough food to last many days. It is cold enough to preserve that food well. Its advantages are clear. But that big refrigerator has its drawbacks as well, although they are not usually recognized. First of all, the large refrigerator encourages the hoarding of food, obesity and other eating problems. Also, it has

destroyed the pleasant custom, still common in Europe, of going to market each day. Picking out

one ’ s fresh produce daily while chatting with friends and neighbors is no longer a part of our lives.

In addition, people ’desire to buy huge amounts of groceries just a few times a month has encouraged the growth of supermarkets and destroyed local grocery stores. Another victim of the

gi ant refrigerator has been small local farmers, who can ’compete against the mega-producers favored by the supermarkets.

44.According to the passage, which of the following is regarded by the author as one of the victims of the “ giant refrigerator ”?

A . The supermarkets.

B .The local grocery stores.

C. The American kitchens D. The mega-producers

45.From this passage, you could infer that many Europeans .

A . are more economical shoppers than Americans

B . are better cooks

C. enjoy eating more

D . don ’ taveh “ giant” refrigerators


46.The author’ s tone in this passage is mainly.

A . cheerful

B .depressing

C. critical D. optimistic

47.The passage mainly deals with.

A . the advantages of shopping patterns in Europe

B . disadvantages and advantages of large refrigerators

C. fresh, healthy produce and daily meeting with friends

D . wonderful modern kitchen appliances

Passage 3

Urbanization and industrialization demanded new directions in education. Public education, once a dream, now becomes a reality. Education was forced to meet new social changes. American society was getting much more complex; literacy became more essential. Secondary education, which had been almost totally in the hands of private individuals up to the time of the Civil War, gradually became a public concern. By the early 1900s there were over 7000 high schools, totaling an enrollment of over 1 million. Technological changes demand more vocational training. Subjects such as bookkeeping, typing, agriculture, woodworking, and metalworking were introduced into

the curriculum. American education finally was becoming universal.

Higher education also responded to the need for more and different education. The Morril Act of 1862 established state land grant colleges that taught agricultural methods and vocational subjects. While curriculums included a large number of required courses during the first two years of college, more elective subjects were added during the last two years. In 1876 Hopkins University instituted America ’first graduate school for a dvanced study. In general, American education began to respond to the complexities of the i ndustrial age and the need for a new focus in education.

48.One factor, repeatedly emphasized in the passage, is that .

A . technological changes demanded more vocational training

B . teaching methods were also changing

C. higher education also responded to the need for more different education

D . education was forced to meet new social changes

49.Literacy became more essential because .

A . American public education was far from enough

B . American society was growing more complex

C. the public was concerned about secondary education

D . far fewer subjects were introduced into the school curriculum

50.In the last paragraph of the passage, the word “instituted ” means .

A . set up B. provided


C. set forth D. prepared



Complete each of the following sentences with the proper form of the word given in the

brackets. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points, 1 point each)

51.(title) Being a member you to discounts on tickets.

52.(essence) She has added a few characters and changed some names but this is a

true story.

53.(advantage) She argued that social , such as lacking a good living condition or a

good standard of education, are major causes of crime.

54.(effect) She is not officially our boss, but she is in control of the office.

55.(courage) It was of the young man to challenge the professor as to the potential

genetic therapies.

56.(supervise) Most health services are provided free of charge for low-income groups and at

moderate charges for others, through local and national agencies, under the

of the Department of Health.

57.(employ) Four out of five U.S.corporations with more than 500 now offer

educational opportunities to workers, and many professional associations have

educational programs for their members.

58.(wide) The range of university courses available has tremendously in recent


59.(consider) The nature of Canadian households has changed over the past


60.(afford) Radio exposed a wider audience to country music while new, relatively

inexpensive recording technology made records available at prices. V.ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

There are 4 groups of simple questions in this part, which are based on the texts you have learned. Give a brief answer to each of the questions. Your answers must be to the point

and grammatically correct. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(20 points, 5 points each)

61.In The Necklace by de Maupassant, what did Mme. Loisel strongly wish for and how do you

account for those wishes? What is the irony in the story?

(From The Necklace) 62.Why did Smiley name his frog Daniel Webster? What did Smiley try to train him to do? For

what purpose did he train his frog?

(From The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Cavaveras County ) 63.According to Bricks from the Tower of the Bable, what are the purpose, ideal features and


limitations of a universal language?

(From Bricks from the Tower of the Babel ) 64.According to David Givens in What Body Language Can Tell you That Words Cannot, what is

body language? What features does it have? Cite one or two examples of body language

from the text.

(From What Body Language Can Tell You That Words Cannot)