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Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

“Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments”

Maria Mirgkizoudi1, Changqing Liu1, Paul Conway1, Steve Riches2

1Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University,

Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK

2GE Aviation Systems -Newmarket, 351 Exning Road, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 0AU, UK

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

M.Mirgkizoudi@http://www.wendangku.net/doc/e7bdbd4d33687e21af45a9f9.html

IeMRC Annual Conference 2012

Background

Problem Identification Research Focus

Experimental Details Experimental Approach Test Samples & Wire

Bonding

Wire Bonding

Characteristics

Experimental Design Results

Discussion

Conclusions

Acknowledgements

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

40years of reliability background. Harsh environment applications raise concerns about reliability under combined extreme loadings.

New industry requirements

Wire bonding:

Problem Identification

Unit to compare Best Middle Worst Cost

WB -FC, TAB Manufacturability WB FC*TAB**Flexibility for changes WB -FC, TAB

Reliability

FC

WB, TAB

-

Performance FC TAB WB, TAB

1Harman,G.,“Wire bonding in microelectronics –materials,processes,reliability and yield”,McGraw-Hill,2nd Edition,1997*Flip Chip

**Tape-automated bonding

The main concerns in assembly and packaging: Low cost Small size

Functional density Integration density

Fundamentals of failure

under complex and harsh

conditions

Major Interconnection Technology Comparison1

IeMRC Annual Conference 2012

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

a

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Research Focus

The effects of combined thermal and vibration loadings on wire bonding performance -the rational:

Temperature and vibration are prime causes of failure within electronic circuits.

Research on behaviour of wire bonded devices limited only in normal operation conditions.

Knowledge gap in testing and qualification of electronics under combined harsh conditions.

Wire bonding performance under those combined conditions has not been fully characterised.

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Experimental Approach

Investigation of:

1.Bond strength & mechanical integrity

2.Electrical resistivity changes

3.Microstructural defects induced

4.Wire orientation role on wire degradation

5.How loop geometry is affected by the conditions applied Analysis methods:

1.Wire pull & ball shear testing

2.Electrical resistance measurements

3.Metallographic observation

IeMRC Annual Conference 2012

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Thick film resistor

sensors

Pd-Ag

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

solder connection pads

Au thick film conductor tracks

Heating element

Silicon chips

Alumina (Al 203) ceramic substrates with interconnected components

and embedded heating element

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Al 203 Ceramic Substrates with

Au thick film pads Wire Bonding:

Au ball-wedge bonding. The gold pads were wire bonded by pairs of two: one pair using low loop height and, one using a larger loop height

a) b)

Schematic representation of the two wire bonding profiles for the a)low loop height and,b)large loop height.

Low loop height Au Pad

Al 203 ceramic base

Large loop height

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Large loop height

Large loop height

L o w l o o p h e i g h t

Low loop height

Au track

Schematic representation of the wire bonding profile for the two loop heights

48-pin Dual-in-line (DIL)High Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (HTCC)Wire Bonding:

Au ball-wedge bonding Two wire loop heights X & Y direction wire bonding to allow testing on two axes at the same time

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Characteristics

??

??

h1, h2

L

Ball Bond Wedge Bond

Description

Wire Diameter ()25 μm Ball Diameter ()75 μm Low Loop (h1)~200 μm

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Large Loop (h2)~300 μm

Pitch size300 μm

Distance between ball &

wedge bond (L)

2000 -

2300 μm Schematic representation of the wire

bonding structure,a)top view and,b)

side view.

Wire bonding characteristics

IeMRC Annual Conference 2012

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

TEST 1:

(verification of the testing system)*Temperature increase by power input

Stage 1:

Thermal Test ONLY:

Elevated temperature up to 180°C*Stage 2:

Vibration Test ONLY:

Sine fixed frequency at 300Hz Acceleration at 10g rms

TEST 2:

(combined thermal & vibration test)Stage 1:

Elevated temperature up to 180°C. Sine fixed frequency at 500Hz. Acceleration at 10g rms.

Stage 2:

Elevated temperature up to 180°C. Sine fixed frequency at 1500Hz. Acceleration at 20g rms.

Stage 3:

Elevated temperature up to 180°C. Sine fixed frequency at 2000Hz. Acceleration at 20g rms.

Phase 1:

Understanding the parameters

Process Parameter Level Run No.

Temp.Freq.Accel.1---2+--3-+-4++-5--+6+--7-++8

+++

Orthogonal Array and Control Factors Assignment

The design consists of 3factors each at 2different levels:

Each level (high (+)and low (-))of the factors represented as follows:

Temperature level:250°C (+)and 180°C (-) Frequency level:2000Hz (+)and 500Hz (-) Acceleration level:20G (+)and 10G (-)

Test replicates and duration:

Each test replicated 3times (one for each axes)

Total duration of each test:3hours

Phase 2:Factorial design

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Phase 3:High temperature-vibration testing based on Aviation Standards

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Temperature exposure at 25°C, 180°C and, 250°C (3 hours)

Sinusoidal vibration testing (vibration test procedure for

airborne equipment)

Temperature exposure (25°C, 180°C, 250°C) (3 hours) & sinusoidal vibration testing (3

axes)

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Electrical Characterization

10

10.511

11.51212.51313.51414.51515.51616.51717.51818.51919.5200123456789101112131415161718192021222324

R e s i s t a n c e (m ?)

Sample No.

Before Testing

After testing

Electrical resistance changes for the a)low loop and,b)the large loop wires before (?)and after (■)testing

10

10.51111.51212.51313.51414.51515.51616.51717.51818.51919.52020.52121.52222.5230123456789101112131415161718192021222324

R e s i s t a n c e (m ?)

Sample No

Before Testing After testing

a) b)

IeMRC Annual Conference 2012

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Bond Strength

Wire Orientation on the Vibration System

Ball Bond Shear Failure Load, grms

120°C 500Hz 10grms

250°C 500Hz 10grms 120°C 2000Hz 10grms 250°C 2000Hz 10grms 120°C 500Hz 20grms 250°C 500Hz 20grms 120°C 2000Hz 20grms 250°C 2000Hz 20grms

Y

Mean

48.7332.0349.6142.5049.2537.2850.4650.85SD 8.63 3.0010.929.8712.5015.828.3216.78X

Mean

50.2630.1356.9244.2947.0728.7251.0644.48SD 8.08 3.07 2.5413.7412.45 6.138.7815.78Z

Mean

43.6141.9254.5540.4958.1632.9753.3944.53SD 11.359.36 4.6610.80 2.349.38 4.0614.36All bonds

Mean

47.3834.9853.7342.3551.7632.9951.7046.54SD

9.627.96

7.30

11.17

10.84

11.20

7.06

15.25

Shear load mean values and standard deviation for bonds after testing –MIL-STD 883H

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Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Observations from failed balls after shear testing

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Ball shear

Ball shear and partial ball

lift off Ball shear and partial metallization lift off

Observed in all cases

After testing at:

250°C, 500 Hz, both 10G and 20 G

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Failure associated with short circuiting Interconnection failure on the silicon chip

SEM analysis of failed bonds & wires

Wire distortion due to low frequency-high acceleration vibration loading combined with high temperature at 250°C

Observations from deformed wires after testing

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wires tangled to one

direction

Wire bend

Wires tangled sideways

X axis orientation 250°C and 120°C 500Hz

Both 10G and 20G

Y axis orientation 250°C 500Hz

20G

Z axis orientation 250°C 500Hz

Both 10G and 20G

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Observations from deformed wires after testing

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Short circuit

X axis orientation 250°C 500Hz

20G

Ball lift off

X & Z axes orientation 250°C 500Hz

Both 10and 20G

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

Wire Bonding Integrity Assessment for Combined Extreme Environments

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