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意象派

Imagism

Imagism was a poetic movement of England and U.S., from 1908 to1917.

It is the first organized Modernist English language literary movement or group.

The imagists,with Ezra Pound leading the way, hold that the most effective means to express these momentary impressions is through the use of one dominant image.

The purposes of the Imagists is to reject the Romantic and Victorian poetry which they considered Sentiment, discursiveness and overly verbose.

Three stages:

1.1908~1909: London, T. E. Hulme

2.1912~1914: 1912-1914, Pound as the leader, three rules by him and Flint :

1 .Direct treatment of the “thing”, whether subjective or objective. 2.To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation. 3 As regarding rhythm, to compose in the sequence of the musical phrase, not in the sequence of a metronome.

3.1914~1917: Amy Lowell

Significance:

1. It was a rebellion against the traditional poetics

which failed to reflect the new life of the new century.

2. It offered a new way of writing which was valid

not only for the Imagist poets

but for modern poetry as a whole

3. The movement was a training school in which

many great poets learned their first lessons in the poetic art.

4. It is this movement that helped

to open the first pages of modern English and American poetry.

because of the Imagism has too much emphasized on image, and has n ot fully reflected the social life. So the

Imagist poetry movement disappeared so fast in Europe and America poetic world. Although the Imagism history is not long, but it caused a great influence, especially in the America, and this effect has not disappeared in today’s America. Therefore, imagism was called as the biggest literary movement in American literature.

由于意象派过于追求意象,没有足够反映社会生活,所以意象派运动很快消失在英美诗坛上。意象派历史不长,创作成果不大,却造成巨大的影响,尤其在美国,这影响至今没有消失。因此,意象派被称为“美国文学史上开拓出最大前景的文学运动

Pound and Imagism

As the father of modernism which is the main stream of literature in the twentieth century, Ezra Pound definitely plays a predominant role in the evolution of modernist poetry. Its starting point is Imagism.作为现代主义之父,艾兹拉·庞德在诗歌现代化进程中扮演着举足轻重的角色。由它倡导的意象派运动揭开了现代主义诗歌的序幕。

He advocates hard, clear and condensed image. After sufficient theoretical preparation and ceaseless poetic practice, Pound becomes the most outstanding leader

of Imagism. He defines image as the combination of an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time.

他提倡在诗歌中使用硬朗、清晰、凝炼的视觉意象,这成为后来意象主义原则的基础。经过充分的理论准备和坚持不懈的实践,庞德最终成为意象主义诗歌最杰出的领袖,对传统诗歌美学进行了一次震聋发聩的革命。他提出明确的意象概念即意象是一瞬间呈现出来的理智和情感的复合体。

He also proposes the three principles of Imagism: 1 .Direct treatment of the “thing”, whether subjective or objective. 2.To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation. 3 As regarding rhythm, to compose in the sequence of the musical phrase, not in the sequence of a metronome.

同时,庞德提出了著名的意象派三原则。它们是:直接处理无论是主观的还是客观的事物;绝对不使用无益于表现的词语;在韵律方面,用连续性的音乐语汇,而不用连续的节拍器节奏。

These principles provide some basic writing rules for the Imagist writers. The main writing technique for the presentation of image is metaphor. It encourages the reader to find similarity between two diverse things that have no direct connection with each other.

意象派三原则成为意象主义作家创作的基本准则。隐喻是意象主义者呈现意象的主要创作技巧。它把两个表面看来毫无直接联系的意象叠在一起,由读者进行想象从而找出二者相比的微妙之处。

Vorticism is the expansion of Imagism. When Cathay is published, Pound’s interest turns to the Chinese ideogram and establishes the Ideogramic Method, whose aim is to combine abstract concept with concrete particulars by the juxtaposition of distinct elements in a poem to produce intense effect.

漩涡主义是意象主义的延伸。《华夏》出版后,庞德开始对中国表意文字产生了浓厚的兴趣。他发现一个汉字往往就是一个意象,富有诗情画意。

Thus Pound sets up his own mature and systematic thought. He almost singlehandedly leads poetry to modernism and exerts far-reaching impact on Imagist writers. He is a great forerunner in the literary circle of the twentieth century. No one can deny Pound’s position as a great artist.

庞德创立了表意法。表意法的诞生标志着庞德诗歌理论体系的成熟和发展。无论从批评理论还是创作实践的层面上来说,庞德都是缪斯女神花园中辛勤不辍的园丁。他几乎独立地领导了诗歌的现代主义运动,并对意象派作家产生了深远的影响。庞德无疑是二十世纪文坛的伟大先驱,一位当之无愧的杰出艺术家。