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山大网络教育英语三(3)

SHANDONG UNIVERSITY COLLEGE ENGLISH TEST

FOR NON-ENGLISH MAJORS OF CONTINUING EDUCATION

I. Vocabulary and Structure

There are 30 questions in this section. For each of the questions, there are 4 choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the ONE that best answers the question.

1. Is the city noted its champagne?

A. in

B. about

C. on

D. for

2. Everyone blames you a certain mistake.

A. on

B. for

C. in

D. against

3. The Mississippi River carries great amounts of fine sand and silt into the Gulf of Mexico south of New Orleans.

A. collections

B. mounds

C. reserves

D. quantities

4. In arithmetic, a number stands for the size of a set of things.

A. measures

B. estimates

C. cancels

D. represents

5. The theory of plate tectonics provided scientists with a framework for understanding how and why the various features of the

Earth constantly change.

A. goal

B. motive

C. subject

D. structure

6. Without exception, the earliest literate societies originated along the banks of great rivers.

A. public libraries

B. schools

C. naval academies

D. communities

7. An employment contract can be mutually beneficial to both employer and employee.

A. obviously

B. hardly

C. frequently

D. jointly

8. The school __________ is wo rn on the boys’ caps.

A. stamp

B. label

C. figure

D. badge

9. The committee was under _____________ to reach agreement before midnight.

A. duty

B. pressure

C. control

D. influence

10. If you ask me, she ___________ too high an opinion of herself.

A. keeps

B. takes

C. has

D. feels

11. His business is growing so fast that he has to ____________ more workers.

A. take up

B. take on

C. take over

D. take out

12. At that time they were poor and they went _____________ a difficult time.

A. down

B. along with

C. in for

D. through

13. New ways must be found to facilitate the ________ of the problem.

A. revision

B. solution

C. decision

D. conclusion

14. One’s mastery of a foreign language is largely determined by his _______ to the language.

A. measure

B. exposure

C. pressure

D. seizure

15. She couldn’t understand his _________ of country life to city life.

A. liking

B. reference

C. preference

D. loving

16. The rapid ________ of the country into a world power surprised the world.

A. change

B. shift

C. growth

D. break

17. The _______ of the various sciences are in some way more important than the sciences themselves.

A. application

B. use

C. usage

D. implication

18. In recent years, the _______ of a wide variety of ele ctronic tools has greatly speeded up the chemists’ work.

A. production

B. research

C. development

D. making

19. City dwellers may not be conscious of their __________ of water because water supply is convenient in the city.

A. carefulness

B. hatefulness

C. gratefulness

D. wastefulness

20. Before 1949, many poor children in China died of _________.

A. shortage

B. starvation

C. hunger

D. anger

21. The use of wild animals in circuses was an innovation first introduced in the United States.

A. a number

B. a program

C. a musical spectacle

D. a new idea

22. In his The Old Man and The Sea, Ernest Hemingway celebrates the indomitable courage of an elderly fisherman.

A. discusses

B. investigates

C. praises

D. analyzes

23. People who live in cold climates eagerly look forward to warm, _________ summer holidays.

A. airy

B. stuffy

C. sunny

D. clean

24. Why do we have to put up with this __________?

A. worry

B. anxiety

C. eagerness

D. disturbance

25. A motor-car may be regarded as a __________ wealth.

A. personnel

B. personal

C. individual

D. single

26. His illness may result malnutrition.

A. in

B. to

C. from

D. for

27. The manager will have to hire two people to make up the lost time.

A. in

B. for

C. on

D. of

28. ____________ between them while they waited for the girl to come back.

A. A word was hardly said

B. A word was said hardly

C. Hardly a word was said

D. Hardly was said a word

29. They supposed he was _________ man to be allowed to miss his flight.

A. a too important a

B. a too important

C. too important

D. too important a

30. A motorway was ____ ___ through the garden of one house.

A. building

B. being built

C. built

D. gong to build

II. Cloze

There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D. Choose the ONE that best fits into the passages.

The great power of tornadoes is almost (31) . The speed of this whirling funnel-shaped (32) may be more than 500 (33) per hour. It can tear up trees, carry buildings away, and can even lift large trucks (34) the highway. The tornado is like a giant vacuum sweeper that (35) up anything in its (36) . Experts believe that the most violent force of a tornado is (37) inside the funnel, where a vacuum is created because of very low air pressure. When this vacuum moves (38) a building which is filled with air under (39) pressure, the difference between the air pressure inside the building and that outside causes the building to explode. The largest tornado (40) record had a funnel a mile wide.

There are many interesting stories about the strange things that tornadoes have done in the U.S. Common wheat (41) has been driven several inches (42) posts and trees. Buildings have been (43) completely around on their foundations and have remained (44) . People and animals have been (45) hundreds of feet, often suffering no physical harm. Feathers have been (46) from chickens. Cars, trucks, and even whole freight-trains have been carried away.

A few years ago in the (47) of Indiana, three people were walking into a church just as a tornado (48) . Two walked up the steps into the church building and the third person went (49) into the basement. In that moment, the church building was carried away and the two persons (50) were killed. The one in the basement was not hurt.

31. A. inbelievable B. unknowable C. unseeable D. unbelievable

32. A. storm B. wind C. rain D. breeze

33. A. miles B. meters C. inches D. feet

34. A. above B. over C. off D. up

35. A. sucks B. breathes C. stuck D. struck

36. A. passing B. path C. pass D. past

37. A. seen B. looked C. sought D. found

38. A. beyond B. into C. over D. off

39. A. normal B. ordinary C. common D. usual

40. A. in B. of C. off D. on

41. A. stick B. branch C. straw D. grass

42. A. inside B. into C. onto D. past

43. A. turned B. moved C. shifted D. switched

44. A. unchanged B. unwounded C. uninjured D. undamaged

45. A. brought B. taken C. carried D. fetched

46. A. removed B. broken C. infected D. split

47. A. county B. city C. state D. province

48. A. stub B. struck C. stuck D. stuff

49. A. over B. above C. down D. up

50. A. upward B. upstairs C. downstairs D. downward

III. Reading Comprehension

There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some True-False questions or Multiple-Choice questions. Choose among A, B, C, and D or between T and F to answer each question. Write the letter of your choice on your Answer Sheet.

Passage 1

If we view a science as a body of systematized knowledge, then chemistry is usually called a natural science because it is concerned with knowledge of the natural world. At times we may wonder why there is no complete system into which all of chemistry fits perfectly. Gaps in the present system, however, show that chemistry is still a growing subject and that we h aven’t yet discovered all of its facts, laws, and theories. In other words, chemistry as a science is very much with us today, and its future holds the bright promise of much more to come.

Man’s knowledge about himself and nature has grown into a variety o f sciences. The growth of the separate sciences has been more developmental than intentional. The separation of the natural sciences into physical and biological sciences, and physical sciences into physics and chemistry, happily breaks up a larger body of knowledge into more manageable parts. At the same time we should remember that the concepts, techniques, and applications of the various sciences are interdependent and not exclusively a part of one science or another. In this respect, chemistry is a key science among the natural sciences because everyone, regardless of the area of natural science he wishes to pursue, needs at least an introduction to the principles and simpler applications of chemistry as a foundation for his specialty.

Chemistry deals with the properties of matter, changes in matter, the laws and principles describing these changes, and the concepts and theories that interpret them. Traditionally, chemistry has evolved into four provinces: organic, inorganic, physical, and analytical chemistry.

The traditional area of organic chemistry is concerned primarily with compounds of carbon, and inorganic chemistry deals with non-carbon compounds. Physical chemistry, a productive marriage of physics with chemistry, includes the problems of chemical reactions, the energy associated with them, the structure of molecules, and the nature of various states of matter. Analytical chemistry emphasizes the development of precise methods of analyzing the chemical composition of substance. Analysis may be qualitative (what is in it?) or quantitative (how much of each component is in it?). In recent years, the development of a wide variety of electronic tools has greatly speeded up the chemist’s work and has made possible more accurate measurements as well as measurements of new factors.

Chemistry has grown up as a discipline during the past 200 years. It is younger than astronomy but older than psychology. Today, when a student begins to study a discipline, such as chemistry, it may appear to him that the subject is completely “worked out,” that all the answers have been found, and that there is nothing new to discover. Because there is a huge body o f knowledge — facts, theories, and applications—already worked out, this impression is understandable. However, more new chemistry than ever is now being discovered in these three areas. There are over tow million entries in the current index to the chemical literature each year, and at least 300,000 new compounds are made annually. An intellectual discipline must provide for freedom of exchange of ideas, discoveries, and applications. Consequently, an intellectual discipline thrives best in an

academic atmosphere.

51. If we view a science as a body of ….

A. examine

B. look at

C. consider

D. watch

52. Gaps in the p resent system, however, show that ….

A. distance

B. an empty space between two objects

C. difference

D. a lack (of something)

53. Chemistry deals with the properties of matter, ….

A. possession

B. quality

C. ownership

D. fortune

54. Chemistry has grown up as a discipline….

A. obedience and self-control

B. punishment

C. a method of training

D. a branch of learning

55. There are over two million entries in the current index to….

A. entrance

B. a list

C. a gate

D. the right to enter

Passage 2

For centuries town and country have been regarded as being in opposition to each other. It has been suggested that the superficial differences between the two—wide-open spaces contrasting with brick and concrete—are less important than the contrasting attitudes of town and country.

I am one of the many city people who are always saying that given the choice we would prefer to live in the country away from the dirt and noise of a large city. I have managed to convince myself that if it weren’t for my job I would immediately head out for the open spaces and go back to nature in some sleepy village buried in the country. But how realistic is this dream?

Cities can be frightening places. The majority of the population live in noisy massive tower blocks. The sense of belonging to a community tends to disappear when you live fifteen floors up. All you can see from your window is sky, or other blocks of flats. Children become aggressive and nervous, staying at home all day, with nowhere to play; their mothers feel isolated form the rest of the world. Strangely enough, whereas in the past the inhabitants of one street all knew each other, nowadays people on the same floor in tower blocks don’t even say hello to each other.

Country life, on the other hand, differs from this kind of isolated existence in that a sense of community generally binds the inhabitants of small villages together. People have the advantage of knowing that there is always someone to turn to when they need help. But country life has disadvantages too. While it is true that you may be among friends in a village, it is also true that you are cut off from the exciting and important events that take place in cities. There’s little possibility of going to a ne w show or the latest movie. Shopping becomes a major problem, and for anything slightly out of the ordinary you have to go on an expedition to the nearest large town. The city-dweller who leaves for the country is often oppressed by a sense of unbearable stillness and quiet.

What, then, is the answer? The country has the advantage of peace and quiet, but suffers from the disadvantage of being cut off; the city breeds neurosis and a feeling of isolation—constant noise batters the senses. But one of its main advantages is that you are at the centre of thing s, and that life doesn’t come to an end at half past nine at night. Some people have found (or rather bought) a compromise between the two; they have expressed their preference for the “quiet life” by leaving the suburbs and moving to villages within commuting distance of the large cities.

56. In the author’s opinion, _________.

A. city life is better than country life

B. country life is better than city life

C. city life and country life have their own advantages and disadvantages each

D. neither of city life and country life is desirable

57. All the following are advantages of country life except that .

A. it has fresh air

B. people there are more friendly to each other

C. it is cut off from the outside world

D. it is peaceful

58. All the following are disadvantages of city life except that .

A. people are more isolated from each other

B. life doesn’t come to an end at half past nine at night

C. it is dirty and noisy

D. it is crowded

59. All the following about people living in the country are right except that .

A. they live a more convenient life.

B. they are easier to find help.

C. they have a stronger sense of community.

D. they live a less exciting life.

60. The compromise between country life and city life is .

A. to live in the city for a period of time and then in the country for another

B. to work in the city and live in a nearby village

C. to give up the job and live in the countryside

D. to live in the countryside after retirement

Passage 3

Geologists have been studying volcanoes for a long time. Though they have learned a great deal, they still have not discovered the causes of volcanic action. They know that the inside of the earth is very hot, but they are not sure exactly what causes the great heat. Some geologists have thought that the heat is caused by the great pressure of the earth’s outer layers. Or the heat may be left from the time when the earth was formed. During the last sixty years, scientists have learned about radium, uranium, and other radioactive elements. These give out heat all the time as they change into other elements. Many scientists now believe that much of the heat inside the earth is produced by radioactive elements.

Whatever the cause of the heat may be, we do know that the earth gets hotter the farther down we dig. In deep mines and oil wells the temperature rises about 1℉for each 50 feet. At this rate the temperature 40 miles below the earth’s surface would be over 4,000℉. This is much hotter than necessary to melt rock. However, the pressure of the rock above keeps most materials from melting at their usual melting points. Geologists believe that the rock deep in the earth may be plastic. In other words, the rock yields slowly to pressure but is not liquid. But if some change in the earth’s crust releases the pressure, the rock melts. Then the hot, liquid rock can move up toward the surface.

When the melted rock works its way close to the earth’s crust, a volcano may be formed. The melted rock often contains steam and other gases under great pressure. If the rock above gives way, the pressure is released. Then the sudden expansion of the gases causes explosions. These blow the melted rock into pieces of different sizes and shoot them high in the air. Here they cool and harden i nto volcanic ash and cinders. Some of this material falls around the hole made in the earth’s surface. The melted rock may keep on rising and pour as lava. In this way, volcanic ash, cinders, and lava build up the cone-shaped mountains that we call volcanoes.

61. Geologists have discovered the causes of volcanic action. F

62. The deeper we dig, the hotter the earth is. T

63. Rocks deep in the earth melt when the pressure from the rock above is lost. T

64. The explosions blow the melted rock into pieces of different sizes and shoot them high in the air so that they cannot be found

again. F

65. V olcanoes are cone-shaped mountains built up by volcanic ash, cinders and lava. T

Passage 4

Individuals receive most of their income as suppliers of the factors of production. As laborers they receive wages. As

landlords they receive rent. As lenders of money capital they receive interest. As owners, or part owners, of business firms they receive an income that is partly interest and partly profits. Their decisions in disposing of this income determine what goods will be produced and in what quantities.

In primitive times, individuals and families satisfied their own wants directly by hunting and fishing and gathering wild foods. If they had clothing, it was the skins of animals they had killed themselves. They built their own shelter in the form of huts or of tents made from skins. Later some people started to raise agricultural products and others started to breed domesticated animals for their own use. As long as these conditions persisted, the economy was simple to understand and explain.

Later, however, we began to have some specialization and division of labor. Some skilled individuals began to devote most of their time to making bows and arrows and trading them to the hunters for meat. Some people discovered how to make clay pots and traded them to others for agricultural products. In some places people discovered how to weave cloth and traded the cloth for other products. Most primitive tribes developed some form of money to overcome the difficulties of direct barter exchange.

Our present economic system represents an extremely high development of this principle of specialization and division of labor. Few people now produce goods for their own use and almost no one produces all the different kinds of goods that he wishes to use. Instead we find large numbers of individuals who devote all their working time to making a small part of one particular article or performing one particular operation in a productive process. Others are performing various kinds of specialized services. Most people sell their productive services for money and then use the money to buy goods and services that are produced by a large number of other people. Some people are engaged in making machines that will be used to make other machines or tools with which to manufacture goods.

This process of specialization and division of labor results in a tremendously greater output of goods and services than would be possible without it. It also makes us extremely dependent upon other people both to buy the goods or services that we help to produce and to supply the goods or services for us to buy that we do not produce for ourselves. This interdependence contributes to the complexity and severity of many problems arising out of changes in economic activity. In spite of the problems created by interdependence, almost no one advocates a return to a system of individual family self-sufficiency. Not only would a return to self-sufficiency mean a greatly reduced standard of living; it is doubtful if the present population could even be maintained under such a system.

66. The individuals’ decisions in disposing of their money determine what goods will be produced and how many of each kind

of goods will be produced. T

67. The specialization and division of labor made the economy simpler to understand and explain F.

68. Money was developed as a means to overcome the difficulties of direct barter exchange. T

68. Specialization and division of labor greatly speeded up the development of economy. T

70. The interdependence among people in modern society makes economic problems more complex and severe. T

IV. Translate the following sentences into Chinese. (10%)

71. Well do I remember the stories he told me about his childhood.

.我十分记得他告诉我他童年的故事。

72. He has done this by his ignorance, his greed, and his wastefulness.

他由于他的无知,贪婪和浪费做了这些。

73. The complications of international trade arise because the two parties use different monies.

因为贸易双方使用不同的货币出现国际贸易的复杂性。

74. A student of any area of natural science needs at least an introduction to the principles and simpler applications of chemistry as a foundation for his specialty.

任何自然科学领域的学生至少需要介绍化学的原则和简单应用作为他专业的基础.

75. One person out of three will be dismissed from the company by the end of the year.

三个人中的一个将在今年年底从该公司被开除。

V. Translate the following sentences into English.

76.人人都需要吃、喝和休息。

we all need to eat, drink and rest.

77.这个大厅可容纳多达三千人。(up to)

The hall can accommodate up to 3000 people.

78.自然科学的各大门类构成一个系统化的知识体系。(systematize)

The major categories of natural sciences constitute a systematized body of knowledge.

79.第一次世界大战爆发于1914年。

World War I broke out in 1914.

80.他们的钱用完了,只好中断了工程。

They run out of money, so they have to interrupt the project.

VI. Writing

For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic CARS IN THE CITY. You should write at least 100 words and base your opinions on sound proofs or facts. The following points may serve as a framework.

(1)城市里汽车日渐增多。

(2) 说一下汽车增多有什么好处或坏处。

(3) 你认为应该如何克服这些坏处?

Today, most people in the city rely on automobiles as a means of transportation. So more and more are driving to work every in their own cars. To many city dwellers, cars have become a necessity. But too many cars in the street also create problems. Traffic congestions, accidents and air pollution are the three most obvious problems that accompany a sharp increase of cars. We often get caught in heavy traffic during the rush hours, when it takes a long time to move forward even an inch. And thousands of people die while a greater number are injured, some crippled for life, in traffic accidents every year. If we want to enjoy our cars in safety, we had better follow the traffic rules carefully. Too many cars have created a lot of serious problems in our world. Besides congestion, accidents and fast fuel consumption, cars are responsible for a good part of air pollution in big cities. All the time, they are pumping huge amounts of waste gases into the atmosphere. These gases are very harmful, causing disease and even death. One possible solution is to design and develop clean cars and clean fuels. In Shanghai, some of the public buses begin to run on natural gas, which does not give off as much carbon dioxide as the petrol. But it may take decades for the new models of clean cars completely replace the traditional ones. Another solution is to develop modern public transportation systems and restrict the use of private cars. If the price of petrol rises constantly and the public vehicles are efficient and convenient enough, most people will not buy private cars. And the total number of cars in big cities will reduce greatly. On the whole, the elimination of air pollution needs the collective efforts from the government, the public and the environmentalists.