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I. 词汇填空

Directions: Fill in each blank with a proper word chosen from the box. Each word can be use only once. Note that there is


Why aren’t women happier these days? That’s the q uestion raised by a thought-provoking study, The Paradox of Declining Female Happiness, __31__ last month. The research showed that over the past 35 years women’s happiness has declined, both __32__ to the past and relative to men even though the lives of women in the US have improved in recent decades by most __33__ measures.

The research, by University of Pennsylvania economists Stevenson and Wolfers, and made __34__ by the National Bureau of Economic Research, found the decline in happiness to be widespread among women across a variety of demographic (人口统计的) groups. The researchers, for instance, measured similar declines in happiness among women who were single parents and married pare nts, “__35__ doubt on the hypothesis (假设) that trends in marriage and divorce, single parenthood or work/family __36__ are at the root of the happiness declines among women,” they wrote.

One theory for the decline in happiness is that expectations for workplace and general advancement were raised too high by the women’s movement and women might feel __37__ for not “having it all,” as a Los Angeles Times columnist recently put it.

The researchers acknowledge that’s a __38__:

“If the women’s moveme nt raised women’s expectations faster than society was able to meet them,” the paper says, “they would be more likely to experience __39__ in their lives.” But they add things could change for the better: “As women’s expectations move into adjustment with their experiences, this decline in happiness may reverse.”

Readers, why do yo u think women are unhappier than in the past? Do you think that if expectations for “having it all” were __40__ to “move into adjustment with experiences,” women might be happier?


Good news for giant panda lovers: the cute and cuddly creature has just been brought back from the edge of extinction.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) __31__ the species from “endangered” to “vulnerable” as the union released its updated Red List on Sept. 4 at Hawaii with their __32__ growing by 17 percent in the decade leading up to 2014.

Chinese conservation efforts, including forest protection and reforestation, are considered to be the __33__ force behind the animal's re-prosperity. The number of panda __34__ in China has also jumped to 67, from 13 in 1992. Nearly two-thirds of all wild pandas live there. Restoring the panda’s habitat ha s given them back their space with food available to them.

Apart from giant pa ndas, the Tibetan Antelope has also moved from “endangered” to “near t h reatened”. According to a statement from IUCN, the animal's numbers have shrunk severely - dropping from around 1 million to a(n) __35__ 65,000 -- 72,500 in the 1980s and early 1990s - due to commercial poaching (偷猎). Rigorous protection has since been __36__ to protect the beasts and the population is now likely to be between 100,000 and 150,000.

Despite the improved __37__,wild animals like the giant panda and the Tibetan Antelope still face challenges. The IUCN warned, for example, that ongoing threats from climate change could eliminate more than 35 percent of the panda's

bamboo habitat in the next 80 years, which would __38__ the species recent gains.

Good progress has been made but there is still work to do. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is devoted to

__39__ species from around the world and their statuses in relation to their risk of extinction. The list currently has eight categories, including extinct, extinct in the wild, __40__ endangered, endangered, vulnerable, near threatened, least concern and data deficient. These categories are based on criteria relating to population trends, size and structure, and geographic range.

II. 完形填空精选

About five years ago, when the first generation of wearable fitness trackers became popular, they were announced as the dawn of a revolution. Health experts and busniess people alike said that giving people access to real-time calorie (卡路里)- burning and step-count data would inspire them to lose weight, eat better and -most important- ____41____ more. But even as the U.S. market for ___42____ devices hits $7 billion this year, there’s evidence that their promise isn’t quite paying off.

The U.S. has an exercise problem, with 28% of Americans ages 50 and over considered wholly ___43____. That means 31 million adults move no more than is necessary to perform the most basic functions of daily life. Wearables, experts ___44___, were going to change that.

But limited academic research has been done to ____45____ whether wearables change people’s behavior in the long term. The little research that does exist isn’t ____46____. For a recent study in the Journal of the American Medical Association, researchers wanted to see whether activity trackers would help overweight people lose more weight over two years than if they just did a weight-loss intervention(干预) alone. They didn’t. “We found that just giving people a device doesn’t mean it’s going to ____47____ something you think it’s going to lead to,” says John Jakicic, the author of the study, from the University of Pittsburgh. “These activity trackers don’t engage people in strategies that make a ___48___ in terms of long-term change”

Another new study highlighted a different challenge: user ____49___. By the end of a year long study of 800 people, just 10% of participants were still wearing the trackers, according to, Eric Finkelstein, a professor at the Duke- NUS Medical School in Singap ore. “We didn’t find that Fitbits really have much of an effect,” he says. This may well be because people expect trackers to do something they’re not designed to do-- ____50____, force them to change their behavior. “There’s ____51____ among people about their function, a measurement tool and an intervention,” Finkelstein says. A scale counts pounds, ____52____, but won’t teach you how to eat less. “When people put these devices on, they might interact with the app(应用程序) for the first few weeks, maybe the first few months, but there comes a point where that starts to fall off,” says Finkelstein.

To be ____53___, some of the costlier add higher-tech wearables have features baked into them that encourage users to move more, says Shelten Yuen, Fitbit’s vice president of research. Amon g them: shaking sensors, movement reminders and social- media combination, all designed to ____54____ users to make better health choices every day. But more research will be needed to determine whether or not these ____55____ -- or others like them--measurably improve people’s health and fitness levels.

41. A. learn B. purchase C. exercise D. perform

42. A. wearable B. electronic C. hi-tech D. built-in

43. A. misunderstood B. inactive C. discourage D. depressed

44. A. announced B. determined C. hoped D. noticed

45. A. make up B. focus on C. worry about D. figure out

46. A. encouraging B. interesting C. pioneering D. challenging

47. A. benefit from B. result in C. add to D. seek after

48. A. design B. movement C. profit D. difference

49. A. reduction B. participation C. creation D. expectation

50. A. namely B. therefore C. however D. similarly

51. A. argument B. popularity C. confusion D. interaction

52. A. by the way B. in other words C. of course D. for example

53. A. fair B. cute C. accessible D. technical

54. A. persuade B. motivate C. follow D. teach

55. A. concepts B. sensors C. scales D. features


The Good of Gardening

Do you have a hobby that helps you relax and unwind? For some people, there is no better way to relieve pressure than spending time in the garden. This small private area of green space can be their place of calm.

__67__. A survey conducted by the Royal Horticultural Society, found that 82% of people in the UK said that gardening makes them happier. It also found that 70% of them, given the choice, would prefer to spend their working day in the garden with just 9% opting for an office.

For those with green fingers, the pleasure of gardening comes from getting out in the fresh air, in all weathers and communing with nature -- even if there are a few too many worms! It can also be seen as a sort of digital-detox -- time away from technology. __68__.

Dr Christopher Lowry, a neuroscientist at the University of Colorado, injected a bacterium commonly found in soil into mice to see what affection this would have on them. __69__. When we dig in soil we absorb this bacterium through our lungs or cuts in our skin, so Dr Lowry concluded that since the mice seemed happier when treated with soil bacteria, it’s likely we would be, too.

__70__. Ther e’s ev idence that recovering alcoholics who have been given the opportunity to plant, grow, and even sell their produce, have managed to stop their addictive habits. Scot Stephenson, for example, got dismissed from school and started a vocational qualification in gardening. He says, “I got my NVQ level 2 which is my first qualification and enjoyed it ever since.”

Whatever the reason, there are many therapeutic benefits to getting your hands dirty, doing some physical hard work and then watching your garden grow. Does this sound like your idea of fun?


In so many ways, cyberspace(网络空间) mirrors the real world. People ask for information, play games, and share hobby tips. Others buy and sell products. Still others look for friendship, or even love.

Unlike the real world, however, your knowledge about a person is limited to words on a computer screen. Identity and appearance mean very little in cyberspace. ____67____ So even the shyest person can become a chat-room star.

Usually, this "faceless" communication doesn't create problems. Identity doesn't really matter when you’re in a chat room discussing politics or hobbies. In fact, this emphasis on the idea themselves makes the Internet a great place for exciting conversation. Where else can so many people come together to chat about their interests?

____68____ They are looking for serious love relationships. Is cyberspace a good place to find love? That answer depends on whom you ask. Some of these relationships actually succeed. Others fail miserably.

Supporters of online relationships claim that the Internet allows couples to get to know each other intellectually first. Personal appearance doesn't get in the way.

But critics of online relationships argue that no one can truly know another person in cyberspace. Why? Because the Internet gives users a lot of control over how others view them. Internet users can carefully craft their words to fit whatever image they want to give. And they don't have to worry about what their “faceless” communication is doing for their image. ____69____

All of this may be fine if the relationship stays in cyberspace. But not knowing a person is a big problem in a love relationship. ____70____ This inevitably leads to disappointment when couples meet in person. How someone imagines an online friend is often quite different from the real person.

So, before looking for love in cyberspace, remember the advice of Internet pioneer Clifford Stoll: "Life in the real world is far richer than anything you'll find on a computer screen."


It is found that American students spend less than 15% of their time in school. 67 _______. A study published earlier this month by researchers at North Carolina State University, for example, finds that parental involvement -- checking homework, attending school meetings and events, discussing school activities at home -- has a more powerful influence on students, academic performance than anything about the school the students attend. Another study, published in the Review of Economics and Statistics, reports that the effort put forth by parents reading stories aloud, is devoted by either teachers or the students themselves. And a third study concludes that schools would have to increase their spending by more than $1,000 per pupil in order to achieve the same results that are gained with parental involvement.

68 _______. But it is also revealed in researches that parents, of all backgrounds, don’t need to buy expensive educational toys or digital devices for their kids in order to give them an advantage. They don’t need to drive their offspring to enrichment classes or test-preparation courses. What they need to do with their children is much simpler: talk. But not just any talk. 69 _______. For example, a study conducted by researchers at the UCLA School of Public Health and published in the journal Pediatrics founds that two-way adult-child conversations were six times as powerful in promoting language development as the ones in which the adult did all the talking. Engaging in this reciprocal (双向的) back-and-forth gives children a chance to try out language for themselves, and also gives them the sense that their thought and opinions matter.

The content of parents’ conversations with kids matters, too. Children who hear talk about counting and numbers at home start school with much more extensive mathematical knowledge, report researchers from the University of Chicago.

While the conversations parents have with their children change as kids grow older, the effect of these exchanges on academic achievement remains strong. Research finds that parents play an important role in what is called “academic socialization” -- setting expectations and making connections between current behavior and future goals. 70 _______. IV. Guided writing (in 120-150 words)


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