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无机化合物命名总结

Binary Compounds:

HCl(氯化氢)hydrogen chloride

H2S hydrogen sulfide

NF3 nitrogen fluoride

As2O3 diarsenic trioxide

PCl3 phosphorous trichloride

PCl5 phosphorous pentachloride

CO Carbon monoxid

CO2 Carbon dioxide

SO3 Sulfur trioxide

N2O3 Dinitrogen trioxide

P2O5 Diphosphorus pentoxide

N2O4 Dinitrogen tetroxide

N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide

FeO Iron(II) oxide (Ferrous oxide)

Fe2O3 Iron(III) oxide (Ferric oxide)

Fe3O4 Ferroferric oxide

Pb3O4 Trilead tetroxide

Na2O2 Sodium peroxide

非金属氢化物:

除了水和氨气使用俗称water,ammonia以外,其它的非金属氢化物都用系统名称,命名规则根据化学式的写法不同而有所不同。

(1)对于卤族和氧族氢化物,H在化学式中写在前面,因此将其看成与另一元素的二元化合物。

HF hydrogen fluoride HCl hydrogen chloride

HBr hydrogen bromide HI hydrogen iodide

H2S hydrogen sulfide H2Se hydrogen selenide

H2Te hydrogen telluride

(2)对于其它族的非金属氢化物,H在化学式中写在后面,可加后缀-ane,氮族还可加-ine

PH3: phosphine或phosphane AsH3: arsine或arsane

SbH3: stibine或stibane BiH3: bismuthane

CH4: methane SiH4: silane

B2H6: diborane

酸(acid)

含氧酸:

H2CO3 Carbonic acid

HClO4 perchloric acid ClO4- perchlorate ion

HClO3 chloric acid ClO3- chlorate ion

HClO2 chlorous acid ClO2- chlorite ion

HClO hypochlorous acid ClO- hypochlorite ion

H2SO4 sulfuric acid H2SO3 sulfurous acid

HNO3 nitric acid HNO2 nitrous acid

HPO3 metaphosphoric acid S2O32- thiosulfate ion

无氧酸:

HCl: hydrochloric acid

H2S : hydrosulfuric acid

碱(Bases)

Al(OH)3 Aluminum hydroxide

NaOH Sodium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2 Calcium hydroxide

Ba(OH)2 Barium hydroxide

Co(OH)2 Cobalt(II) hydroxide

盐(Salts)

HgSO4Mercury(II) sulfate

Hg2SO4 Mercury(I) sulfate

KNO3Potassium nitrate

Na2CO3 Sodium carbonate

NaClO Sodium hypochlorite

FeSO4 iron(II) sulfate

KMnO4 potassium permanganate

酸式盐:(Acidic salts)

NaHSO4Sodium hydrogen sulfate

Na2HPO4Disodium hydrogen phosphate

NaH2PO4Sodium di hydrogen phosphate

Ca(HSO4)2Calcium bi sulfate or Calcium hydrogen sulfate

NaHCO3Sodium hydrogen carbonate 或Sodium bi carbonate 碱式盐(Basic salts)

Cu2(OH)2CO3 Dicopper(II) di hydroxy carbonate

Ca(OH)Cl Calcium hydroxy chloride

复盐(Mixed salts)

NaKSO3 Sodium potassium sulfite

CaNH4PO4 Calcium ammonium phosphate

AgLiCO3 Silver lithium carbonate

NaNH4SO4 Sodium ammonium sulfate

KNaCO3: potassuim sodium carbonate

水合盐:

AlCl3?6H2O: aluminum chloride 6-water

或aluminum chloride hexahydrate

AlK(SO4)2?12H2O: aluminium potassium sulfate 12-water

络合物:

Ligand:NH3 Ammine

CO Carbonyl

H2O Aqua

CH3NH2 Methylamine

H2NCCNH2 Ethylenediamine

Li[AlH4] Lithium tetrahydroaluminate(III) [Ag(NH3)2]Cl Diamminesilver(I) chloride

K4[Fe(CN)6] Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 Tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate

Ni(CO)4 Tetracarbonylnickel(0)

无机分析化学常用词汇总结

H2SO4 sulfuric acid

HCl hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid HNO3 nitric acid

HNO2 nitrous acid

HCN hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid

Na2S sodium sulfide

CuSO4 copper (II) sulfate or cupric sulfate

Fe(NO3)3 iron (III) nitrate or ferric nitrate

HClO4 perchloric acid

KCN potassium cyanide

NH4Cl ammonium chloride

NaClO sodium hypochlorite

NaOH sodium hydroxide

Mn(OH)2 Manganese(II) hydroxide

Fe2O3 iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide

P2O5 Diphosphorus pentoxide

H2O2 hydrogen peroxide

K2Cr2O7 potassium dichromate

Cu2(OH)2CO3 Dicopper(II) dihydroxycarbonate CaHPO4 calcium hydrogen phosphate

PtCl42- tetrachloroplatinum(II)

[Ag(NH3)2]Cl Diamminesilver(I) chloride

K4[Fe(CN)6] Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) period(周期)

group(族)

s/p/d block (s 、p 、d 区)

main group element(主族元素)

transition element 过渡元素

alkali metal(碱金属)

alkaline earth metal(碱土金属)

halogen (卤素)

chalcogen (硫族)

rare earth (稀土)

noble gas (inert gas) (惰性气体)

lanthanide (镧系)

actinide (锕系)

transition metals 过渡金属

inner transition metals 内过渡金属

metal ;nonmetal ;metalloid (金属,准金属, 半金属) electron 电子

proton 质子

neutron 中子

photon 光子

nucleus 原子核

atomic number 原子序数

relative atomic mass 相对原子量

Wavefunction atomic orbital (原子轨道)

ground state (基态)

excited state (激发态)

many-electron atom (multi-)(多电子原子)

electron configuration (电子排布)

valence electron(价电子)

covalent /metallic /ionic bond(共价﹑金属﹑离子键)coordinate covalent bond(配位共价键)

single /double /triple bond

polar /nonpolar covalent bond

bond parameter(键参数)

bond length

bond angle

bond energy

intermolecular force (分子间作用力)

orientation force(取向力)

induction force(诱导力)

dispersion force (London force) (色散力)

hydrogen bond

Van der Waals force(范德华力)

solvent(溶剂)

solute(溶质)

dilute solution(稀溶液)

concentrated solution

unsaturated solution

saturated solution

supersaturated solution

homogeneous(均相的)

heterogeneous(非均相的)

concentration(浓度)

activity (活度)

number of moles

molarity (摩尔浓度)

molality(质量摩尔浓度)

mole fraction(摩尔分数)

molar mass(摩尔质量)

hydration水合作用

hydrolysis水解

solvation溶剂化

hydrate水合物

volatile挥发的

electrolyte(电解质)

nonelectrolyte acid / base

amphoteric substance (两性物质)

conjugate acid / base(共轭酸碱)

polyprotic acid(多元酸)

dissociation equilibrium(离解平衡)

dissociation constant(离解常数)

buffer solution(缓冲溶液)

solubility(溶解度)

precipitate(沉淀)

ion product constant离子积常数

solubility product constant溶度积常数

formation/ dissolution/ transformation of precipitation沉淀生成/溶解/转化precipitation equilibrium(沉淀平衡)

solubility product rules(溶度积规则)

common ion effect(同离子效应)

salt effect(盐效应)

fractional precipitation(分步沉淀)

complex ion(配离子)

ligand(配体)

coordination number/ atom (配位数/原子)

chelating agent(螯合剂)

chelate(螯合物)

stability constant(稳定常数)

oxidation(氧化)reduction(还原)

Redox reaction(氧化-还原反应)

oxidation number(氧化值)

oxidizing/ reducing agent(氧化/还原剂)

electrolysis(电解)electrolitic cell(电解池)

anode/ cathode (阳极/阴极)

electrochemical cell(原电池)

electromotive force(电动势)

standard electrode potential(标准电极电势)

disproportionation(歧化反应)