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新标准大学英语综合教程4 Unit5-unit8(非1-4)

Unit 5-unit8

Unit5

Active reading (1)

4 Number the different parts of the passage in the order in which they occur.

1 Refer to recent research to dispel the myth about male gossip.

2 Reveal that men change topic of conversation when women are present.

3 Focus on the difference of content between male and female gossip.

4 Suggest that the myth about male gossip is really a problem of terminology.

5 Present a detailed, technical account of how women gossip.

6 Conclude that the vital difference between male and female gossip lies in the positive response of the audience.

Dealing with unfamiliar words

5 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 in a way that is impossible to doubt and easy to see (decidedly)

2 the reason that you do something (motive)

3 main, or most importan t (principal)

4 with qualities thought to be typical of men (masculine)

5 to criticize something, or to suggest it is not good enough for you (sniff)

6 lively or active (animated)

6 Complete the paragraph with the correct form of the words in Activity 5.

When Simona Ventura became the host of the Italian TV soccer programme, a lot of people (1) sniffed at the decision. What could a woman do in such a (2) decidedly male-dominated world? They argued. But the (3) motive behind the choice of Simona as the new presenter soon became apparent. Rather than change to fit the programme – there is nothing (4) masculine about her – she created a new, more modern show, the (5) principal aim of which is to entertain the whole family. The old style, lengthy and rather technical analyses of football matches, has been replaced by a lively TV programme, which is (6) animated by guest celebrities, dancers and singers, as well as extracts from the day‘s top matches.

7 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the following words. You may need to make other changes.

1 Cultural and intellectual programmes tend to be broadcast very late in the evening. (Highbrow)

2 At the beginning I was very shy, but I soon got to know everyone and made friends. (initially)

3 The course I enjoyed most when I was studying linguistics was the one on the relationship between

words and meanings. (semantics)

4 To find out more about English as a world language, we need reliable people who are able to give information. (informants)

5 She sent me a bunch of roses when I got the job, and I did the same when she got promoted. (reciprocated)

6 For some men there is still a feeling of embarrassment and unease about taking orders from a

female superior. (stigma)

7 After the goal was disallowed, most of the words I could hear were swear words. (expletives)

8 You can‘t speak like that to someone you don‘t know. It‘s a matter of rules of social behaviour. (etiquette)

9 Only after a very careful and time-consuming editing will this book be ready for publication. ( an exhaustive)

8 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

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Active reading (2)

3 Choose the best summary of the passage.

3 Women constantly have to make choices about dress and appearance, and even the way they sign their names, which lead people to make judgments about them; men do not have to make the same choices.

4 Choose the best answer to the questions.

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Dealing with unfamiliar words

5 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 the place where you work (workplace)

2 to mean something (denote)

3 to make something or someone become gradually less effective, confident, or successful (undermine)

4 to think that something is true because it is likely, although you cannot be certain (presume)

5 a regular and important part or feature of something (staple)

6 involving or consisting of many people, things, or parts (multiple)

7 expressing what you mean using clear and effective language (eloquent)

8 used to describe a word that refers to one person or thing (singular)

9 behaving in a very unfriendly or threatening way towards someone (hostile)

10 to say or write words that someone else has said or written (quote)

11 to give someone responsibility for an important job or activity (entrust)

6 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in Activity 5.

1 Melanie got to her feet and made a eloquent defence of the rights of women in the workplace.

2 There are a number of words in English, such as people, which although technically in the singular

form, in actual fact denote a plural meaning.

3 The dark suit is a staple of the businessman‘s wardrobe, and I presume it will remain so for a long time.

4 The hostile reception he got at the meeting is likely to undermine all the work that has been done recently to improve relations between staff and management.

5 Jason suffered multiple injuries in the accident, and we didn‘t want to entrust an inexperienced

surgeon with the operation.

6 I think that most world leaders in the next centu ry will be women, but don‘t quote me on that.

7 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the following words. You may need to make

other changes.

1 Don‘t forget to put on a bit of lipstick and mascara before you go out. (make-up)

2 The candidate displayed a lack of seriousness which we felt was not appropriate to the position he was applying for. (frivolousness)

3 I need to check my free dates in March before I can confirm whether I shall be able to attend the conference. (availability)

4 He has an attractive smile which people find hard to resist. (alluring)

5 This list of participants needs to be put into alphabetical order. (alphabetized)

6 The first person officially suggested as general secretary had to withdraw due to ill health. (nominee)

7 After the first remarks offering congratulations the atmosphere at the prize-giving ceremony turned sour. (congratulatory)

8 The speaker made a comment which I found unfriendly and which meant the opposite of what he really meant. (sarcastic)

8 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 Is a linguistic problem concerned with (a) words, or (b) figures?

2 If you are disqualified from an event, do the organizers (a) allow you, or (b) refuse to allow you to take part?

3 Is rub likely to mean (a) a problem, or (b) a solution?

4 If you have got myriad job offers, are you likely to be (a) concerned, or (b) optimistic about your future?

5 If you let on about something to someone, do you (a) tell them about it, or (b) keep it a secret?

6 If you duck something which has been thrown at you, does it (a) hit, or (b) miss you?

7 If someone speaks to you in an uppity way, is their manner (a) superior, or (b) humble and polite?

Language in use

say + something / nothing / a lot etc about

1 Rewrite the sentences using say + something / nothing / a lot etc about .

1 The boots she wears give a lot of information about her.

The boots she wears say a lot about her.

2 The way he talks about other people gives an indication of his personality.

The way he talks about other people says something about his personality.

3 The way she behaves doesn‘t give any indication of her previous career.

The way she behaves says nothing about her previous career.

4 This statement is very revealing about the organization‘s attitude to women.

This statement says a lot about the organization‘s attitude to women.

5 This type of task gives some idea about the structure of the final examination.

This type of task says something about the structure of the final examination.

on + gerund

2 Rewrite the sentences using on + gerund.

1 When they checked the figures again, they realized there had been a mistake.

On checking the figures again, they realized there had been a mistake.

2 When she was asked, she said she would like to be known by her first name.

On being asked, she said she would like to be known by her first name.

3 When we investigated more completely, we made an important discovery.

On investigating more completely, we made an important discovery.

4 When they heard the news, most people reacted with offers to help.

On hearing the news, most people reacted with offers to help.

5 When people are accused of a crime they haven‘t committed, most of them don‘t know how to react.

On being accused of a crime they haven‘t committed, most people don‘t know how to react. anything but

3 Rewrite the sentences using anything but .

1 The organizer of the conference was the opposite of helpful.

The organizer of the conference was anything but helpful.

2 The instructions you left were certainly not easy to follow.

The instructions you left were anything but easy to follow.

3 I felt extremely unsafe wearing those four-inch-high heels.

I felt anything but safe wearing those four-inch-high heels.

4 The weather last week was quite the opposite of warm and sunny.

The weather last week was anything but warm and sunny.

5 I think that attitudes towards women in the company where I work are a long way from being progressive.

I think that attitudes towards women in the company where I work are anything but progressive. other than

4 Rewrite the sentences using other than .

1 The only thing we do when the three of us meet is gossip.

When the three of us meet we do nothing other than gossip.

2 Men have no real alternative unless it is to wear a suit.

Men have no real alternative other than to wear a suit.

3 The only thing I wish to add is to say how much I have enjoyed the whole day.

I have nothing to add other than to say how much I have enjoyed the whole day.

4 They told her she didn‘t have to do anything except sit quietly and look pretty.

They told her she had nothing to do other than to sit quietly and look pretty.

5 The only reason I have for being here is the free lunch.

I have no reason to be here other than the free lunch.

Collocations

5 Match the adjectives in Column A with the nouns in Column B.

A B

bright colours

conservative tastes

correct tone

popular belief

heavy make-up

highbrow subject

face value

6 Complete the sentences with the collocations in Activity 5.

1 Both of us have rather conservative tastes, so we‘re unlikely to buy modern furniture.

2 I‘m afraid these bonds are worth a lot less than their face value.

3 It‘s not easy to find the correct tone in which to speak to new customers.

4 I like wearing bright colours; I think they reflect my outgoing personality.

5 Yesterday‘s lecture was on such a highbrow subject that I couldn‘t get interested.

6 Why do they put such heavy make-up on people in television studios?

7 The popular belief that men don‘t cry is nonsense.

7 Translate the paragraphs into Chinese.

(?翻译时注意原文的语气,否则就可能不

准确。第二段是一个长句,翻译时应注意按中文习惯断句。)

女人一填表就会暴露自己的个人经历。现在大多数的申请表会给出四种称谓选择,男人只有一种选择,即―先生‖,他们的选择除了表明他们是男性之外没有其他含义。但女人要从三种称谓中选一个,其中的任何一种都是带标记的。如果勾选―太太‖(Mrs.)或者―小姐‖(Miss)的方框,她不仅暴露了自己的婚姻状况,而且表明她在称谓上很保守,而且在价值观方面可能也很保守。如果选―女士‖(Ms.),说明她拒绝透露自己的婚姻状况(而男人选―先生‖时则没有拒绝透露任何事情,因为他本来就没有被要求透露婚姻信息)。另外,在表格中勾选―女士‖的人会被标记为―平权者‖或―叛逆者‖,这就要看评判她的人持什么样的态度和看法了。

我有时填上―博士‖头衔,以避开这几种带标记的称谓选项。这么做又会给自己带来风险,标明自己要么骄傲自大(于是乎招来讥讽的反应,比如―拜托!‖),要么是一个读书读过头的人(那么对方的反应就是祝贺式的惊奇,比如―真行!‖)。

8 Translate the paragraphs into English.

Our presumptions about what ideal husbands or wives are like reveal a lot about our gender expectations as well as our responses to them. If most girls want their fiancés to be tough, capable and reliable, there is no more option left for young men other than to be trained as tough, capable and reliable if they want to win girls‘ heart. If they act to the contrary, they will most probably bemoan their bachelor‘s status for the rest of their lives. Following the same unwritten rule, if most boys expect their fiancées to be caring, patient and faithful more than anything else, girls are prone to let on that they will become faithful wives and loving mothers even if they are not the type.

Looking into such gender expectations, we may find that they are based on both physiological and social factors. It goes without saying that women are physically prepared to bear children, whereas men are utterly unfit for the job. Therefore, a family is better-off when its male members devote their time to providing food and other necessities for it.

Translation of the passages

Active reading (1)

英国人说闲话规则的性别差异

与普遍的看法相反,研究人员发现:男人和女人一样爱说闲话。英国的一项研究发现:两个性别的人对诸如人际关系这类的社会话题所花的时间一样多,大约是65%;另一项研究则表明:两性差异很小,男人谈话时有55% 的时间在说闲话,女人说闲话的时间是67%。由于体育和休闲大约占10% 的说话时间,所以很可能是谈论足球的时间导致了这种性别的差异。男人谈论政治、职业、艺术及文化事务等―重要‖或―高雅‖话题的可能性并不比女人高,除非女人在场(这就形成了强烈的对比)。女人不在场的时候,男人也说闲话,他们谈论职业和政治等社会问题的时间不会超过5%。男女都在场时,为了引起女人的注意,男人谈论―高雅‖话题的时间会大大增加,达到15% 至20%。

事实上,最近的研究表明,男性和女性说闲话在内容上只存在一个重要的差别:男人会花更多的时间谈论自己。在谈论社会关系的总时间中,男人用了三分之二的时间来谈论自己的关系,而女人谈论自己的时间则只占三分之一。

即便如此,那个关于男人讨论―解决世界上问题‖而女人只是躲在厨房里闲言碎语的神话仍然大行其道,尤其是在男人堆里。在我所调查的人群及面谈中,大多数英国男性刚开始时都声称他们不说闲话,而大多数女性都坦承自己说闲话。在接下来的提问中,我发现两者的差别只在于语义层面而非实践层面:女性通常称为―说闲话‖的活动在男性那里被定义为―信息交流‖。

显然,在英国男性眼里说闲话是一件可耻的事情,这条不成文的规则已经深入人心,因此就算一个人真的在说闲话,他也会把它说成是另一回事。更重要的是,它必须听起来像是在说别的事。在研究中我发现男女说闲话的主要区别在于女人说闲话听起来更像闲言碎语。这涉及到三个主要因素——音调规则、细节规则和反馈规则。

语调规则

我面谈过的英国女人都认为只有某种特别的语调适合于说闲话。说闲话的语调有时很高、语速很快,有时像在舞台上演戏一样轻轻说,但总是活灵活现的。一位妇女这样解释:―闲话总是以语速快、调门高、口气激动的话语开始的:?哎,你猜猜怎么着?你知道吗?‘或者,?嗨,听我说,听我说(语速快、急切,像舞台上清晰的低语),你猜我听到了什么?‘‖另一位女士告诉我:―即使实际上并不是那么回事儿,你必须让它听起来像令人吃惊的事或者像丑闻。虽然那根本算不上什么秘密,你可以说:?哎,你可别告诉别人,我听说……‘‖

这些妇女中有许多人抱怨男人在说闲话时没有使用正确的语调。像交流任何其他信息一样,他们总是用平缓、冷静的语调说闲话。一位妇女对此嗤之以鼻:―你简直搞不清他们是不是在说闲话。‖但这正是男人要的效果。

细节规则

女人强调说闲话时细节的重要性,她们悲叹男人在这方面的缺陷,声称男人―从不了解细节。‖__一位被调查者告诉我:―男人从不引述别人的话。如果我们不能确切地知道别人说了什么,那有什么意思呢?‖另一位被调查者说:―女人比男人更倾向于推测……她们谈及某某为什么会做某事,并追溯整个事情的历史。‖对女人而言,详细推测动机和原因与详细推测可能的后果一样是闲话的关键因素,它要求对―过去的历史‖进行详尽的梳理。英国男人认为:所有这些细节都很乏味、无关紧要,当然,讲出来也就有伤男子气概。

反馈规则

在英国妇女中存在一种共识:好的―闲话‖除了语调生动、关注细节之外,还要有好的听众。所谓好的听众是指欣赏闲话并给予大量恰当的反馈的听众。女性的闲话反馈规则要求听众至少应该和说话者一样生动活泼、充满热情。她们的道理好像是:这样才足够礼貌,因为说话人要把事情讲得出人意外,讲得像丑闻,还是颇费心力的。因此听众至少要表现出适度的吃

惊才能回报说话人的努力。据我的女性被调查者说,英国男人好像完全没有掌握这条规则。他们不知道―你应该说?不会吧!真的吗?‘及?噢,我的上帝!‘‖

不过,我的女性被调查者也同意,那些以女性方式做出反应的男人听起来像小女孩,或者被认为女里女气,让人感觉不舒服。我面谈过的一位男同性恋也觉得―不会吧!真的吗?‖这类反应会被认为是十足的―娘娘腔‖。英国闲话礼仪的不成文规则的确允许男人在听到特别有趣的闲话时感到震惊或吃惊,但大家都明白:一句恰到好处的脏话也能表达同样的诧异,这种方式更能被男人接受。

Unit6

Active reading (1)

Reading and understanding

3 Number the events in the order they happened.

5The allied forces declared victory in World War II.

3Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty.

4Churchill became Prime Minister.

1Churchill fought in the Boer War.

6Churchill lost the general election.

2 Churchill elected to the British Parliament.

6 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 willing to accept someone else’s beliefs or way of life without criticizing them (tolerant)

2 a system of government in which people vote in elections to choose the people who will govern them (democracy)

3 willing to support, work for or be a friend to someone, even in difficult times (loyal)

4 being famous and admired for a special skill or achievement (renowned)

5 the things that you will do or the type of person that you will become in the future (destiny)

6 a peaceful and private place where you can go in order to rest (retreat)

7 to frighten or hurt someone who is smaller and weaker than you (bully)

7 Complete the paragraph with the correct form of the words in Activity 6.

Churchill believed that he was (1) destined to lead his country. He fought as a soldier in World War I and led the country to victory in World War II. It seems ironic that a leader of such (2) renown as Churchill could not count on the (3) loyalty of voters in 1945. However, in a (4) democratic country, electors cannot be (5) bullied, and he had to (6) tolerate political defeat after military victory, and went once more to his country (7) retreat, Chartwell.

8 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words and expressions in the box.

1 His achievements were so great that they can never be bettered. (surpassed)

2 The situation can only get worse; it will never improve. (degenerate)

3 Although he was a rich man, his clothes were of poor quality and in bad condition. (shabby)

4 He exchanged his position as a general for that of an ordinary soldier. (swapped)

5 At the beginning of World War II the King turned to Churchill to lead the country. (onset)

6 Churchill drank a lot of alcohol. (liquor)

7 Churchill wanted to do something to show he was sorry for his mistake at the battle of Gallipoli. (make amends)

9 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 If a government is a monstrous tyranny, is it (a) terrible and oppressive, or (b) democratic and tolerant?

2 If something is lamentable, is it (a) surprising, or (b) disappointing?

3 If you pack someone off, do you (a) protect them, or (b) send them away?

4 If someone talks with a stammer, do they talk (a) in a confident way, or (b) with difficulty?

5 Does double up as mean (a) to do two jobs at the same time, or (b) to do a job more than once?

6 Is a dispatch (a) a report that you send, or (b) something you experience?

7 Is sanity (a) a mental illness, or (b) the ability to think and speak reasonably?

8 If you suffer a bout of flu, does the flu last (a) a short time, or (b) a long time?

9 Does unswervingly describe someone whose feelings (a) often change, especially if circumstances change, or (b) are constant, even if circumstances are difficult?

10 If you brandish something, do you (a) hide it in a pocket, or (b) wave it in the air?

11 Does infuriating describe someone who (a) makes you angry, or (b) is very easy to get on with?

12 Is eccentricity (a) strange and unusual behaviour, or (b) normal behaviour?

Active reading (2)

2 Work in pairs. Choose the best answer to the questions.

1 What is a historical fact?

(a) Anything that happened in the past.

(b) Something significant that happened in the past.

Comment: (a) is true in a sense, but most facts like that are of no interest or can be easily forgotten. To really become part of history the fact must be worth recalling.

2 What does a historian do?

(a) Establish accurately what happened in the past.

(b) Decide which facts are important and interpret their significance.

Comment: Historians need true facts, which are not much use until they are interpreted and used. So (a) has some truth, but (b) far more.

The historian and his facts

Reading and understanding

3 Answer the questions.

1 What is the relationship between archaeology and history?

Archaeology is an auxiliary science of history, for example, it supplies facts which can then be interpreted by historians, eg pottery is dug up and dated so we know a certain group lived there at a certain time. This may or may not affect our view of the past.

2 Why does the writer say it is not true that “facts speak for themselves”?

There are an infinite number of facts about the past. They only matter if we pay attention to them and see them as significant.

3 How and why are historians selective?

Historians present us with facts which they think give us an understanding about the past, and

choose ones which support their ideas.

4 What is the difference between a fact about the past and a fact of history?

A fact about the past is anything which ever happened; a fact of history is a fact which historians debate the meaning of and regard as significant for understanding the tale of humanity.

4 Check ( ) the true statements.

1 Historians only need to record facts accurately.

2 Historians need to know how to determine the origins of historical facts.

√ 3 Historians select the facts they need to support their interpretation.

√ 4 Historians decided that Caesar’s crossing of the Rubicon was a significant historical event. √ 5 People continue to believe in the existence of facts without a historian’s interpretation, even though such a belief is ridiculous.

6 The event at Stalybridge Wakes in 1850 is a well-established historical fact.

Dealing with unfamiliar words

5 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 a written or spoken comment about something that you have seen, heard or felt (observation)

2 wood used for building houses or making furniture (timber)

3 secondary, not principal or main (auxiliary)

4 a small piece of a larger object that has broken, often into a lot of pieces (fragment)

5 very detailed and complicated (elaborate)

6 the process of choosing one person or thing from a group (selection)

7 not important and not worth worrying about (petty)

8 a serious disagreement (dispute)

9 to make a formal suggestion (propose)

6 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in Activity 5.

1 His proposal proved popular and the meeting accepted it unanimously.

2 It’s the elaboration / elaborateness of the decoration that makes the building special.

3 The evidence was very fragmentary and it was difficult to get a complete picture.

4 The historian selects the important facts and arranges them to fit his theory.

5 Restoration is an auxiliary science which helps art historians find out the age of a painting and the artist.

6 The pettiness of his arguments meant that they weren’t important or worth taking seriously.

7 These ancient timbered buildings were constructed of wood from the nearby forest.

8 They disputed the truth of the theories for a long time.

9 They observed that there was more than one interpretation of the facts.

7 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 Does decipher mean to (a) read a text easily, or (b) work out the meaning of a secret or obscure text?

2 Is an inscription (a) something written or carved on something to record an important event, or

(b) something recorded or spoken?

3 Is a motto (a) a short statement of what someone believes, or (b) an extended argument?

4 Is orientation likely to mean (a) a way of doing something, or (b) an attitude or belief?

5 Is a fallacy likely to be (a) a mistaken belief, or (b) something that’s obviously true?

6 If you eradicate something, do you (a) establish it, or (b) remove it completely?

7 Is a seconder someone who (a) comes second in a race, or (b) supports a proposition at a meeting?

8 If someone or something relapses, does it (a) return to its previous state, or (b) disappear?

9 If someone does something gallantly, do they do it (a) daringly and successfully, or (b) bravely, but unsuccessfully?

Language in use

thanks to …

1 Rewrite the sentences using thanks to …

1 Because of Churchill’s leadership and example, we showed courage and determination. Thanks to Churchill’s leadership and example, we showed courage and determination.

2 Because of their loyalty to king and country, young Winston was brought up to serve the UK. Thanks to their loyalty to king and country, young Winston was brought up to serve the UK.

3 At school he was bullied because of his lisp, stammer and ill-health.

At school he was bullied thanks to his lisp, stammer and ill-health.

4 Because of his dispatches from the Boer War, he returned to England as a hero.

Thanks to his dispatches from the Boer War, he returned to England as a hero.

5 Because of school holidays playing in Blenheim Palace, he had always wanted to be a general. Thanks to school holidays playing in Blenheim Palace, he had always wanted to be a general.

6 He lost his job as First Lord of the Admiralty because of the disaster at Gallipoli.

He lost his job as First Lord of the Admiralty thanks to the disaster at Gallipoli.

7 Because of his wife Clementine, he managed to control his depression.

Thanks to his wife Clementine, he managed to control his depression.

8 Because of his prediction about Germany, King George VI invited him to form a government. Thanks to his prediction about Germany, King George VI invited him to form a government.

unpacking complex sentences

2 Look at the sentences from the passage The historian and his facts and answer the questions.

1 To praise a historian for his accuracy is like praising an architect for using well-seasoned timber or

properly mixed concrete in his building.

(a) What is the main verb?

The main verb is is.

(b) What is like praising an architect?

To praise a historian.

(c) What kind of historian and architect are compared?

Good, efficient historians and architects are compared.

2 It is precisely for matters of this kind that the historian is entitled to rely on what have been called the “auxiliary sciences” of history – archaeology, epigraphy, numismatics, chronology, and so forth.

(a) What is the main verb?

The main verb is is (the first one).

(b) What are examples of the auxiliary sciences of history?

archaeology, epigraphy, numismatics, chronology.

(c) Why is the historian entitled to rely on them?

Because they are scientific fields with reliable results.

3 In spite of C. P. Scott’s motto, every j ournalist knows today that the most effective way to influence

opinion is by the selection and arrangement of the appropriate facts.

(a) What is the main verb?

The main verb is knows.

(b) What do journalists want to know?

The most effective way to influence opinion.

(c) How do they do this?

By the selection and arrangement of the appropriate facts.

(d) Does C. P. Scott’s motto support this way of doing things?

No, C. P. Scott, a famous newspaper editor, said “Comment is free, but facts are sacred.” The motto doesn’t support this way of doing things..

4 The fact that you arrived in this building half an hour ago on foot, or on a bicycle, or in a car, is just as

much a fact about the past as the fact that Caesar crossed the Rubicon.

(a) What is the first fact? How many alternative first facts does it have?

The first fact is about how you arrived. There are two alternatives: You arrived on a bicycle or in a car.

(b) What is the main verb?

The main verb is is.

(c) What is as much a fact about the past as Caesar crossing the Rubicon?

How you arrived.

5 It may be that in the course of the next few years we shall see this fact appearing first in footnotes, then

in the text, of articles and books about 19th-century England, and that in 20 or 30 years’ time it may be

a well-established historical fact.

(a) What’s the main verb?

The main verb is may be.

(b) When will this fact first appear?

In the course of next few years.

(c) Where will it first appear?

It will first appear in footnotes of articles and books about 19-century England.

(d) Where will it appear next?

The text of articles and books about 19-century England.

(e) What will happen next?

It will be regarded as a well-established historical fact.

(f) When will it happen?

In 20 or 30 years’ time.

collocations

3 Read the explanations of the words. Answer the questions.

1 swap This word usually means to replace one thing with another.

(a) So what happens when a student in China swaps places with a student in the US?

The Chinese student goes to America and the American student comes to China.

(b) If two families each has a house, what happens when they agree to do a house swap?

Family A goes to live in Family B’s house and vice versa.

(c) What happens if you take an item of clothing back to a shop and swap it for another size or colour? You hand back the first one and the shop gives you another one of different size / colour without any further payment.

2 loyal When you’re loyal to someone, you’re willing to work for someone or be their friend even in difficult circumstances.

(a) What kind of person is a loyal customer?

One who always uses the products or services of a particular business, eg the customer only buys drinks / coffee in Starbucks.

(b) Why do shops offer customers a loyalty card?

To encourage customers to keep on coming back.

(c) If you have mixed loyalties towards two people or organizations, do you want to be loyal to both or neither?

Both.

3 dispute A dispute is a serious disagreement, especially one between groups of people that lasts for a long time.

(a) What kind of facts are beyond dispute?

The facts no one argues against.

(b) If something is in dispute, do people agree or disagree about it?

People disagree about it.

(c) If something is open to dispute, do people agree or disagree about it?

People disagree about it – it is a matter of opinion.

4 observation This word refers to the process of watching someone or something carefully, in order to find out about it. An observation is a comment about something you have seen, heard or felt.

(a)If someone makes an interesting observation about someone or something, what do they do? They make an interesting comment about it which attracts the listener.

(b) If you enter hospital under observation, what are the doctors trying to do?

The doctors are watching you to see how your problem develops.

(c) What would a soldier do from an observation post?

To keep watch on what is happening nearby.

5 petty This word usually means small, unimportant or minor.

(a) What kind of crime is a petty crime?

Such crimes as shoplifting sweets, not paying your bus fare etc.

(b) Do you think petty cash is a large or small amount of money?

Petty cash is a small amount of money, eg cash kept in an office for paying any small charges such as extra postage.

(c) Is a petty officer in the navy likely to be of high or low rank?

A petty officer in the navy is likely to be of low rank.

4 Translate the paragraph into Chinese.

历史学家不需要掌握特殊的技能去确定陶瓷或大理石残片的起源与断代、解读一段意义隐晦的铭文的

含义、或是为确定一个准确的日期而进行繁复的天文计算。这些所谓的基本事实对所有的历史学家来

说都是一样的,它们是历史学家可用的原始素材,而非历史本身。我要说的第二点是,之所以有必要

确定这些基本的事实并不取决于事实的可靠性,而是取决于历史学家事先做出的判断。尽管C.P.司各特

的那句箴言深入人心(注:司各特的箴言comments are free, but facts are sacred.“事实不可歪曲,评述大可自由”),但是现在每一名新闻记者都知道要影响大众舆论,最有效的方式就是对特定的事实进行选择和剪接。人们以前常说事实不言自明。这种说法显然是错误的,历史事实只是在历史学家用到

时才会不言自明。哪些事实可以现身说法,以及这些事实以什么样的顺序或是在什么样的情景中出现

都是由历史学家来决定的。我记得皮兰德娄笔下的一个人物曾经说过:事实就像一个麻袋——不塞点

东西进去就立不起来。我们之所以对1066年发生在黑斯廷斯的战役感兴趣的唯一原因就是历史学家把

这一战役看作是一个重大的历史事件。历史学家们依照自己的推断,认为凯撒穿越那条小河——卢比

孔河——是一个史实,但没有人对在他之前或是之后几百万其他人穿过这条河的举动感兴趣。你半个

小时之前或徒步、或骑车或开车来到这幢大楼,这件事和当年凯撒渡过卢比孔河一样都是一个关于过

去的客观事实。(?这一段长句较集中。第二句的定语从句译成汉语时可拆分成并列句。注意 a priori decision和the appropriate facts 的译法。)

5 Translate the paragraphs into English.

To make the campus safer, the university authorities recently released a new regulation that forbids any vendors from entering the campus, and the president called on the students to cooperate with the university on this matter. But the students’ opposition was strong, and hundreds of them expressed their anger on the university BBS. They said that to keep vendors off campus is like deserting the students on an island, as the university was far away from the downtown and the shops on the campus did not provide enough commodities. Some claimed that it was precisely for matters of this kind that university should listen to students’ opinions and needs. Some students thought the university had got it wrong in believing that this regulation will ensure safety on campus.

Shocked by the students’ reaction, the president tried to make amends for his mistake by announcing that the university will look into this new regulation again. He told students that they were entitled to live a convenient and comfortable life, but safety is just as much an important concern as that. He proposed to build a big supermarket within the campus and some convenient stores near dormitory buildings, which would certainly make students’ life much easier.

Translation of the passages

Active reading (1)

温斯顿·丘吉尔

1940 年夏天,英国面临外敌入侵,孤立无援。在这危急时刻,有一个人——温斯顿·丘吉尔——挺身而出,显示了英国人的英雄本色。我们英国人喜欢把自己看成是一个宽容而坚忍的民族。但是丘吉尔以他卓越的领导才能和光辉的榜样让我们看到,当我们所珍视的一切——我们的民主、我们的自由——受到威胁的时候,我们会展示出无与伦比的勇气和决心。

“我所能奉献的唯有热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水。你问我们的政策是什么?我会说我们的政策就是在海、陆、空全面开战。竭尽全力,尽上帝赋予我们的全部力量去战斗,和黑暗的、可悲的人类罪恶史上最穷凶极恶的暴政作战。你问我们的目标是什么?我可以用一个词来回答,那就是胜利。不惜一切代价,去夺取胜利。战胜一切恐怖,去夺取胜利。不论前方的道路多么漫长、多么艰辛,一定要夺取胜利。”

在这样一个时刻,英国必须显示出她最伟大的一面。而在丘吉尔身上,我们看到了一个最伟大的英国人。1874 年温斯顿·丘吉尔出生于英国一个极为显赫的家庭。丘吉尔家族世代为国王和国家出生入死,征战沙场。温斯顿年轻的时候一直相信他会继承父业。但是他一直能够保持自信却与他的家庭无关,他的家人并没有给他多少支持。他的父亲伦道夫·丘吉尔勋爵(1849-1895)和母亲珍妮(1854-1921)都是冷漠、拒人于千里之外的人。他们把温斯顿送到了哈罗公学。他既不英俊又不聪明;他体弱多病,说话口齿不清,还结巴。他是那种在学校里注定要被人欺负的学生——实际情况也是如此。温斯顿的父亲不仅没有给他支持和帮助,还预测他的儿子将来会“沦落到穷困潦倒,一事无成,抑郁而终的地步”。

离开学校之后,经过三次努力他进入了位于桑赫斯特的英国皇家陆军军官学校。从桑赫斯特毕业之后,他就找地方打仗去——什么地方都行。他自费兼任战地记者。他在报道中把自己宣传成布尔战争的英雄。1900

年回到英国的时候,他已经名满天下,为当选国会议员铺平了道路。

同年,他代表奥德姆市当选为保守党国会议员。他一度转投自由党,后来又重回保守党。他从来不是一个热衷于党派斗争的人。他只关心英国的前途和命运。他理想中的英国是普通百姓安居乐业的地方,但同时他又非常看重法律和社会秩序。尽管他不是一个邪恶的人,但他对妇女参政论者、工团主义者以及任何想要挑战现行体制的人冷酷无情,他首先想到的手段就是动用军队镇压。

但是他一直想做一个将军。这种理想可以追溯到他的学生时代。学校放假的时候,他就在布伦海姆宫的走廊里、在他那些战功卓著的祖先的织锦画像下玩玩具士兵,那时候他就萌生了这种理想。

1911 年,被任命为海军大臣的时候,他一定非常高兴;1915 年,当第一次世界大战让他有机会制定

加利波利重大攻势计划的时候,他更是欣喜万分。但是加利波利战役以惨败收场,让温斯顿丢掉了饭碗,也使他几乎精神崩溃。丘吉尔第一次犯严重的抑郁症就是从那个时候开始的,他把这个让他痛苦不堪的疾病称为他的“黑狗”(沮丧)。值得庆

幸的是,此时他已经娶妻成家。他的妻子克莱门泰因帮他度过了难关。她比他小11 岁,美丽、聪明、忠贞不渝。她让他振作起来,但最终丘吉尔以自己特有的方式走出了抑郁。为弥补他的过失,他奔赴法国战场,在战壕中浴血奋战。在第一次世界大战中,大概没有几个士兵会像他那样从战场上写信回家说他“感觉到了几个月来没有过的幸福和满足”。他就是为战争而生的。

当丘吉尔回到英国的时候,他已经成就了丰功伟业。他曾是一名成功的记者,他曾为国家浴血奋战,他曾经身居高位。在20 世纪20 年代他再次官居要职,担任财务大臣。但是到了1930 年,工党开始执政,而他只是一名后座议员,一个无足轻重的小人物,一个过气的政客。30 年代的大部分时间,他都在他的乡间别墅查特威尔庄园里闲坐度日。

1938 年9 月,时任首相的内维尔·张伯伦(1869-1940)公开挥舞着他和阿道夫·希特勒(1889-1945)签订的和平协议,宣告他已经确保了我们这个时代的和平。你甚至都可以听到人们如释重负地松了一口气。但是丘吉尔并不这么认为。他预测到了——比任何人都要早地预测到——德国的民族主义会走向何方。事态的发展证明他是对的。战争爆发了,英国国王乔治六世(1895-1952)知道“要组建一个能赢得全国信任的政府,我只能去请一个人,那就是温斯顿。”任命下来的时候,丘吉尔已经65 岁了。为这一天他等了很久,但上天最终还是把大任降到了他的身上。

人们经常会说起1066 年的诺曼征服,说起击败西班牙无敌舰队的壮举,提到特拉法尔加战役这些重要的历史事件。但其实1940 年才是英国历史上最为重要的一年。敦刻尔克大撤退、不列颠之战、德国空袭英国都发生在这一年。在这一年,每一个英国人,不管是平民还是士兵,都发现自己处于战争之中。英国似乎不可能赢得这场战争,但是温斯顿用400 年前阿金库尔战役中那个表示胜利的V字手势告诉我们我们能够取得胜利。

丘吉尔是一个直觉敏锐、大胆、常常令人恼火的战争领袖。他对部下粗鲁,令人厌恶。他工作起来不要命,喝起酒来也不要命,这让他的部下疲于应付。但同时他也鼓舞了无数人。1945 年5 月8 日,欧洲最终宣布战争胜利,英国随即举行了大选。许多告示牌上写着“为丘吉尔喝彩,给工党投票”,后来人们的确是这么做的。这真是充满了讽刺意味。丘吉尔随时准备誓死保卫的民主国家知道和平时代的需求和战时的需求是不一样的。

1965 年,丘吉尔去世,刚刚进入摇滚乐时代的英国举国皆哀。如果要用一个人来代表英国的怪僻、坚强的个性、宽大的胸怀,那就是丘吉尔。丘吉尔已经离我们而去,但正是因为有了他,英国才得以存活下来。还有什么比这更伟大的业绩呢?

Unit7

Active reading (1)

Reading and understanding

3 Choose the best summary of the passage.

2 The passage is the story of a home, the people who lived there and how life has changed over the years,

as narrated by the house itself.

4 Choose the best answer to the questions.

1 Why does the narrator never see his neighbour face on?

(a) Because he can‘t really see.

(b) Because the neighbour is a long way away.

(c) Because the narrator and the neighbour are joined in a line.

(d) Because the morning sun shines on the narrator instead of the neighbour.

2 What was the main effect of the arrival of the young woman in the gro undsman‘s home?

(a) She brought companionship, a family and happiness into the home.

(b) The children grew older and taller in the home.

(c) The groundsman didn‘t have to work so much in the manor house gardens.

(d) The home became very noisy.

3 Why do you think the couple was holding each other and weeping?

(a) Because the couple was growing older.

(b) Because the children had grown up and disappeared.

(c) Because the daughter had got married.

(d) Because the postman had brought bad news about the son.

4 How does the narrator feel generally about the years passing?

(a) He regrets the people, the new buildings and the traffic.

(b) He thinks the neighbouring houses are ugly.

(c) He is nostalgic about the past, although he enjoys some of the benefits of progress.

(d) He wishes people would spend more time at home.

5 How do we know the narrator is getting old?

(a) No one is looking after the narrator properly.

(b) The narrator has lots of golden memories.

(c) There are strange sounds and signs of people who have lived there in the past.

(d) The neighbourhood isn‘t what it used to be.

6 What do you think is going to happen to the house?

(a) Another family will come and live there.

(b) The traffic around it will get worse.

(c) It‘s going to be pulled down.

(d) The workmen are going to use it as a workplace.

Dealing with unfamiliar words

5 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 a small house built on land belonging to a large house (lodge)

2 to provide furniture (furnish)

3 feeling rough and hard (coarse)

4 to put a piece of equipment somewhere and make it ready for use (install)

5 to build something by putting parts together (assemble)

6 a group of workers who do physical work (gang)

7 a machine or piece of equipment that does a particular thing (device)

8 a machine or a piece of equipment you have in your home (appliance)

6 Complete the paragraph with the correct form of the words in Activity 5.

When the (1) gang of workmen arrived, the (2) lodge was in a poor state of repair. They began by (3) installing electricity and then (4) assembled the various pieces of a modern kitchen with all the best

(5) appliances such as a washing machine and refrigerator. The walls were rather (6) coarse after years of

neglect, so they used a(n) (7) device to make them smooth again. Finally, they (8) furnished it with tables,

chairs, sofas and beds, until the house was as comfortable as it used to be.

7 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words in the box.

1 The two buildings looked exactly the same from the outside, but were very different inside. (identical)

2 When spring arrives the garden is full of flowers on the trees. (blossoms)

3 The postman used to bring the mail in a large group of things tied together, but these days, we only get

the occasional letter. (bundle)

4 She felt suddenly unconscious for a short time when she heard the dreadful news. (fainted)

5 At the place where two or more roads meet, there are often queues of traffic. (crossroad)

6 I sometimes feel unhappy and angry at the noise and traffic, but most of the time I ignore them. (resent)

7 When you leave apples on the ground, they are gradually destroyed by a natural process, and can‘t be

collected and stored. (decay)

8 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 Is a clearing likely to be (a) an area of woodland, or (b) an area in a wood where there are no trees?

2 If something gleams, is it likely to be (a) bright, or (b) dull light?

3 Is a riot of colours likely to be (a) just one or two, or (b) lots of different colours?

4 If a child gurgles happily, is this likely to be (a) a low, or (b) a high-pitched sound?

5 Is a metallic sound likely to be made by (a) something metal, or (b) wooden?

6 If a dog howls, does it make (a) a long, loud sound, or (b) a weak, high sound?

7 Is a creak likely to be a sound made by (a) something new, or (b) something old?

8 If a gate has fallen off its hinges, is it likely to (a) open and shut normally, or (b) stay open? Reading and interpreting

9 Look at the sentences from the passage and answer the questions.

1 ... I do know that strangely, although we’re identical, we’re the exact opposite of each other ... Why are the house and its neighbour identical yet the exact opposite of each other?

… sort of works for some of the information- though I have never seen such an arrangement. But the

preposition ?over‘ will not work, and surely there are two bedrooms – or what is the other room? We

know it is not a bathroom- and if there are two bedrooms, how can you say the room arrangement is the

opposite as in both cases there are two bedrooms?

2 Soon there were children to look after too ...

In what way does the house look after the children?

The house provides shelter and keeps them warm and dry.

3 I thought they looked rather coarse against my handsome stone.

Does the house like the new brick houses being built? Why / Why not?

No, he does not think brick is as fine a material as stone. The word coarse is negative in connotation.

4 But we were all warm and clean, and although it was different, it wasn’t unpleasant.

What does the house feel about progress?

Fairly positive although a little nervous.

5 My floorboards creak, and ghosts make strange noises throughout the night.

If the house were a human, what would creaking floorboards and ghosts suggest?

Old age with stiff muscles and many memories.

6 Round the bend comes a large crane with a kind of ball and chain. I do hope it will go away. What do you think the crane is coming to do? Do you think it will go away?

Balls are used to smash down walls so it sounds as if the building will be demolished rather than repaired. If so, the crane will not go away.

Active reading (2)

Reading and understanding

3 Answer the questions.

1 Why does the writer suggest that the first photos of Earth from space came as a shock?

They offered a new perspective. They allowed us to see our planet from the outside.

2 What does the passage suggest are the advantages of progress?

People have more comfortable and longer lives.

3 What are the disadvantages of progress?

Population growth and as a result overuse of resources, pollution etc.

4 In what ways are we similar to other people around the world?

We consume similar products and services.

5 In what ways are we different?

We value our individualism and points of difference from others as reflected in the details of our homes.

6 What does our home encourage us to do?

Relax, be ourselves and look inward.

7 Why is watching television ironic?

It results in looking outwards at affairs beyond the home.

8 How have the roles of women changed?

They can follow careers outside the home and have much less time to be housewives.

9 Why will it require wisdom and care to ensure people remain safe and satisfied in their homes? The modern world is pushing us towards uniformity and reducing freedom of choice. It will be difficult

to balance this against what people want from their homes and lives. Changes to the family itself may

also happen with unknown consequences.

10 Why might planet Earth become unrecognizable?

Homes with families and comfort may have disappeared.

Dealing with unfamiliar words

4 Match the words in the box with their definitions.

1 to develop and make more modern (industrialize)

2 to suffer something difficult or unpleasant patiently over a long period of time (endure)

3 smooth-moving and attractive-looking (graceful)

4 a strong feeling of dislike (hatred)

5 to stop happening or continuing (cease)

6 to take control of (conquer)

7 intended, not done by chance or by accident (deliberate)

5 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in Activity 4.

1 Many animals, like the antelope and the swan, move with such grace that we humans can only admire

them.

2 In the 17th century, the Founding Fathers escaped from England because their religion was hated by the

English, but their endurance allowed them to escape to North America and create the US.

3 Industrialized nations have more social and fewer economic problems than developing countries.

4 The US government deliberately chose the name the ―Department of Homeland Security‖ in order to

stress the importance of home.

5 The conquest of space is one of the greatest achievements of the 20th century.

6 There is an enduring need to remind ourselves that the Earth‘s resources are finite.

6 Replace the underlined words with the correct form of the words in the box.

In comparison with small buildings, local communities, towns and cities, the Earth is (1) extremely

large, but we call all of these our home, where we enjoy our (2) basic human right of clean water, adequate

food and personal sec urity. Yet this right creates (3) extreme pressure on the Earth‘s resources, and we

may feel that the human spirit contains an unusual self-destructive (4) characteristic. It‘s as if we humans

work at the (5) main offices of planet Earth, building it and making it stronger and stronger, but with the

ability to bring it down and destroy it. (6) In the end, it‘s our personal duty to leave the Earth as (7) whole

and undamaged as we found it when we arrived.

Key: (1) immense (2) birthright (3) incredible (4) streak (5) headquarters

(6) Ultimately (7) intact

7 Answer the questions about the words and expressions.

1 If buffalos roam, do they move (a) in a deliberate way, or (b) in no particular direction or without any

purpose?

2 Is an emotive word likely to be one which causes (a) strong, or (b) weak feelings?

3 If you hunker down, are you likely to (a) go out and look for trouble, or (b) look for a safe place to

shelter?

4 Is domain likely to be (a) an obligation of a particular person or a group, or (b) an area of activity

traditionally associated with them?

5 Is a place that is habitable somewhere you can (a) live, or (b) travel to?

6 If something is immoral, is it likely to be (a) right, or (b) wrong?

7 If something takes an inordinate amount of time, does it take (a) a lot of time, or (b) little time? Language in use

Inversion

1 Rewrite the sentences using inversion.

1 The sound of children playing came from around the house.

From around the house came the sound of children playing..

2 More houses stood on top of the hill.

On top of the hill stood more houses

3 Horseless carriages passed in front of the house.

In front of the house passed horseless carriages.

4 Two middle-aged women lived here.

Here lived two middle-aged women.

5 A lorry stops at the front of the house.

At the front of the house stops a lorry.

6 A large crane comes round the bend.

Round the bend comes a large crane.

Granted, …

2 Rewrite the sentences using Granted , …

1 I admit that we recognized Earth from maps and drawings, but it was the first time we had seen photos

of it.

Granted, we recognized Earth from maps and drawings, but it was the first time we had seen photos

of it.

2 I admit it was familiar, but it was still unusual.

Granted, it was familiar, but it was still unusual.

3 I admit we could raise standards of living, but we also know that the growth of population is out of

control.

Granted, we could raise standards of living, but we also know that the growth of population is out of

control.

4 I admit we have learnt to like the same things, but we also recognize our individual natures. Granted, we have learnt to like the same things, but we also recognize our individual natures.