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自考语言学Chapter4

Chapter4

Ⅰ. There are four choices following each statement. Mark the choice that can best complete the statement.

1. A major goal of ____ is to show with a consistent and explicit grammatical theory how syntactic rules account for this grammatical knowledge. ( )

A.linguistics

B.semantics

C.phonology

D.phonetics

2. A theory of grammar must provide a complete characterization of linguistic ____ that speakers implicitly consider well-formed, or grammatical sequences. ( )

A.speeches

B.utterances

C.events

D.sentences

3. Normally a sentence consists of at least a subject and its predicate which contains a finite verb or verb phrase. In your opinion, “Stop.” Is a ( )

A.referring expression

B.referring entity

C.sentence

D.part of sentence

4. “The Directionality Parameter offers a neat and consistent account for the typological difference in the word order within th verb phrase category between English and Japanese” is a ( ) A.simple sentence B.coordinate sentence

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/f64e4c114431b90d6c85c750.htmlpound sentence

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/f64e4c114431b90d6c85c750.htmlplex sentence

5. The syntactic rules of any language are ____ in number. ( )

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/f64e4c114431b90d6c85c750.htmlrge

B.small

C.finite

D.infinite

6. The relation of the two clauses in a coordinate sentence is ( )

A.one is subordinate to the other

B.they hold unequal status

C.they are structurally equal parts of the sentence

D.they are incorporated

7. The two clauses in a ____ sentence are structurally equal parts of the sentence. ( )

A.simple

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/f64e4c114431b90d6c85c750.htmlplete

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/f64e4c114431b90d6c85c750.htmlplex

D.coordinate

8. ____ are closed categories because no new words are allowed for. ( )

A.Syntactic categories

B.Major lexical categories

C.Minor lexical categories

D.Phrasal categories

9. The subordinate clause in a complex sentence is normally called ____ clause. ( )

A.an embedded

B.a main

C. a matrix

D.a major

10. ____ is actually internalized in the mind of a native speaker. ( )

A.A complete list of words and phrase

B.A rule system of grammatical knowledge about his language

C.The combinational rules that group words and phrases to form grammatical sentence

D.The phrase structure rules that can generate an infinite number of sentences

11. Language is a highly ____system of communication. ( )

A.well-formed

B.ill-formed

C.structured

D.distructured

12. The structural and logical functional relations of constituents are called ____ relations. ( )

A.linear

B.hierarchical

C.semantic

D.grammatical

13. We can make an infinite number of sentences, and sentences with infinite length. This is due to

( ) http://www.wendangku.net/doc/f64e4c114431b90d6c85c750.htmlbinational rules B.phrase structure rules

C.recursive property of phrase structure rules

D.X-bar theory

14. “She gave the book to John.”can be changed to “To whom did she give the book?”This involves ( ) A.NP-movement B.WH-movement

C.AUX-movement

D.post-verb adjective movement

15. When the Move rule operates to change a sentence from the active voice to the passive voice, it can move a noun phrase only to the required receiving case position. This is due to ( ) A.Directionality Parameter B.Case Condition

C.Adiacency Condition

D.Adjacency Parameter

16. The rules that group words and phrases to form grammatical sentences are called ____ rules.

( )

A.lexical

B.structural

C.coordinate

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/f64e4c114431b90d6c85c750.htmlbinatinal

17. Phrase structure rules have ____ properties. ( )

A.recursive

B.grammatical

C.double

D.many

18. ____ explains why no other phrasal categories can intervene between a verb and its direct object. ( ) A.Case Condition B.Adjacency Condition

C.Adjacency Parameter

D.Leftward Directionality Parameter

19. With the ____ theory, linguists are able to describe and explain explicitly some universal

properties of natural languages. ( )

A.prescriptive

B.X-bar

C.descriptive

D.structuralist

20. Natural languages are viewed to vary according to ____ set on UG principles to particular

valves. ( ) A.principles B.rules C.parameters D.theories

Ⅱ. Fill in each of the following blanks with one word which begins with the letter given.

1.The system of internalized linguistic knowledge of a language speaker if known as linguistic c

____ .

2.For any natural language, a set of s____ rules are capable of yielding an endless number of

sentences in that language.

3.The two clauses in a complex sentence hold unequal status, one s____ the other.

4.The sequential order of words in a sentence suggests that the structure of a sentence is l____ .

5.Words and phrases are organized according to the syntactic c ____ .

6.The g____ relations of a sentence concern the way each noun phrase in the sentence relates to

the verb.

7.G____ questions in English motivate syntactic movement with AUX-movement.

8.Since early 1980s Noam Chomsky and other generative linguists proposed and developed the

principle-and-p____ theory.

9.The A____ Condition on Case assignment states that a case assignor and a case recipient

should stay adjacent to each other.

10.The application of syntactic movement rules t____ a sentence from the level of D-structure to

that of S-structure.

Ⅲ. Decide whether each of the following statements is True or False.

1. Grammatical sentences are formed following a set of syntactic rules. ( )

2. Well-arranged sentences are considered grammatical sentences that are formed by a set of

syntactic rules. ( )

3. Syntax consists of a set of abstract rules that allow words to be combined with other words to be

combined with other words to form grammatical sentences. ( ) 4. The relationship between the matrix clause and its embedded clause is one of a part to a whole.

( ) 5. An embedded clause may function as a grammatical well-formed sentence if its form changes.

( ) 6. A simple sentence consists of a single clause which contains a subject and a predicate and

stands alone as its own sentence. ( ) 7. Phrase structure rules provide explanations on how syntactic categories are formed and

sentences generated. ( ) 8. The superficial arrangement of words in a linear sequence indicates that sentences are simply

linearly-structured. ( )

9. A sentence is a grammatical unit which is structurally independent and complete. ( )

10. WH-movement is obligatory in English which changes a sentence from affirmative to

interrogative. ( )

11. The central element in a simple sentence is the verb phrase. ( )

12. The sequential order of words in a sentence which is only in written form suggests that the

structure of the sentence is linear. ( ) 13. UG is a system of linguistic knowledge and a human species specific gift which exists in the

mind or brain of a normal human being. ( )

14. The structural subject and logical subject have different positions in a sentence. ( )

15.A sentence looks different when it is at the different levels of syntactic representation, i.e.

D-structure and S-structure. ( ) 1.16. The parameters of Universal Grammar can restrain the power of Move a.

( )

Ⅳ. Define the following terms, giving example for illustration if necessary.

1.syntax

2.matrix clause

3.transformational rule

4.D-structure

5.coordinate sentence

http://www.wendangku.net/doc/f64e4c114431b90d6c85c750.htmlplex sentence

7.finite clause

8.UG principles

9.UG parameters

10.Case condition.