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翻译复习攻略-YEAH4全明星阵容!

第一章

知识要点:

1.翻译:是一种语言转换活动

2.刘宓庆在《现代翻译理论》中将“语际意义”概括为六种:概念(主题)意义、语境意

义、形式意义、形象意义、文化意义。

3.美国翻译理论学家奈达将翻译的意义概括成:语义和问题。“translating consists in

reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.”

4.翻译的定义:翻译是把一种语言表达的意义用另一种语言传达出来,以达到沟通思想情

感、传播文化知识、促进社会文明,特别是推动译语文化兴旺昌盛的目的。

5.翻译的分类:

1.首先:就涉及的语言而论,翻译大体上分为:一:语内翻译,是指同一语

言的各个语言变体之间的翻译;二:语际翻译,指不同语言之间的翻译。

2.第二,就其活动方式而言,分为:口译和笔译。口译就是“口头翻译”,

基本方式分两种:连续传译,又称即席翻译,发言人讲完部分或全部内容

之后,由口译人员进行翻译;二是同声传译,口译员利用专门设备,边听

边译。笔译就是笔头翻译。

3.第三, 就翻译材料的文体而言,可分为应用文体、科技文体、论述文体、

新闻文体、艺术文体。

4.第四,就处理方式而言,翻译可以分为全译、节译、摘译、编译和译术。

6.英国翻译家、学者乔治·坎贝尔率先提出了翻译三原则:首先,准确地再现原作的意思;

第二,在符合译作语言特征的前提下,尽可能地一直坐着的精神和风格;第三,也是最后,使译作至少具有原创作品的特性,显得流畅自然。

7.英国翻译家泰特勒:一,译作应该完全复写出原作的思想;二,译作的风格和手法应该

和原作属于同一性质;三,译作应该具备原创作品的通常。

8.中国:释道安“案本”;严复“求信”;傅雷“神似”;钱钟书“化境”。

9.忠实:首先指要忠实于原作的思想内容,作品中叙述的事实、说明的事理、描写的景物、

作者的立场观点和思想情感;保持原作风格,包括民族风格、时代风格、语体风格、个人语言风格;

10.通顺:译文语言必须通顺易懂,合乎规范。

11.翻译人员的业务素质要求:

1.坚实的英语基础,很强的阅读理解能力和鉴赏能力

2.坚实的汉语基础,提高汉语表达能力

3.广阔的知识面

4.合理的翻译策略

5.养成认真负责、谦虚谨慎的学风

1.the commuter dies with trememdous mileage to his credit. 上班族一生中有着惊人的行程。

2.I was with my father on a business-and-pleasure trip.我和父亲一起出来,既是出差,也是游

玩。

3.size don‘t matter, chopping wood 个头没啥关系,劈柴嘛

4.from there I could the whole valley below, the fields, the river, and the village. It was all very

beautiful , and the sight of it filled me with longing. 从这里望下去,整个山谷一览无遗,只

见那田野,河流和村庄,全都美不胜收,真叫我心驰神往。

5.Edward Ferras was mot recommended to their good opinion by any peculiar graces of person

or address. He was not handsome, and his manners required intimacy to make them pleasing.

He was too different to do justice to himself.爱德华·菲拉斯之所以能博得她们的好感,倒不是因为他人品出众,风度翩翩。他并不漂亮,那副仪态嘛,只有和他熟悉了才觉得逗人喜爱。他过于腼腆,这就使得他越发不能显现本色了。

6.he found them pushing needles , threads , pots, pans, ribbons, yarn, scissors and buttons to

housewives.他发现他们在向家庭推销针线、锅罐、缎带、剪刀和纽扣。

7.he sleeps late 他起得晚

8.I shall not expect you until I see you 你随便什么时候来吧。

翻译第二章

1.Marianne‘s preserver, as Margaret, with more elegance than precision, stiled Willoughby

called at cottage early the next morning to make his personal inquiries. 玛丽安的救命恩人(这是玛格丽特对威洛比言过其实的美称),第二天一早一早就到乡舍来问安.

2.Mr. Collins had a compliment, and an allusion to throw in here, which were kindly smiled on

the mother and daughter. 说到这里,柯林斯先生赶忙恭维了一句,还暗示了一下原因,母女俩听了,都粲然一笑.

3.He emerged on January 31 to go to Deli for the conference which, however negative from his

point of view, at least provided the occasion for his bath in 29 days. 一月三十一日,史迪威公开露面,去德里参加会议.这次会议在他看来不管有多么消极,至少为他提供了一个29天以来第一次洗澡的机会.

4.―And you are my uncle, then!‖ she cried, reaching up to salute him. ―这么说,你是我姑父啦,‖

她嚷道,走到他跟前,亲吻了他一下.

5.Clare stood still, and inclined his face towards hers.

―Oh, Tessy!‖ he exclaimed.

The girl‘s cheeks burned to the freeze, and she could not look into his eyes for the emotion.

克莱站住了脚,把脸贴向苔丝的脸. ―哦,苔丝!‖他失声嚷道.苔丝感到了他嘴里冒出来的气息,脸上给烧得火辣辣的,她心神摇荡,不敢在盯着克莱的眼睛了.

6.…the fate of men is as grim and bleak as the fate of women. Toilers and warriors. 男人的命

运和女人的命运一样悲怆凄凉.做苦役,当炮灰.

7.…in 1873 Strauss appropriated and patented the gimmick- and hired Davis as a regional

manager. 1873年,施劳特斯采纳了这一小发明,出资位置申请了专利-并雇用戴维斯做一地区经理.

8.When to those recollections was added the development of Wickham‘s character, it may be

easily believed that the happy spirit which had seldom been depressed before, were now so much affected as to make it almost impossible for her to appear tolerably cheerful. 一丽莎白虽说一向性格开朗,难得有意志消沉的时候,但是一想起这些事,加上渐渐认清了威客姆的真面目,心里难免受激,因而连强作欢颜也办不到了,这是可想而知的.

9.I had not known you a month before I felt that you were the last men in the world whom I

could ever be prevailed on to marry. 我认识你还不到一个月的时候,就觉得哪怕我一辈子找不到男人,也休想让我嫁给你.

10.A difficulty of arranging their lips in this crude exposure to public scrutiny, an inability to

balance their heads…was apparent in them…显然, 要在大厅广众面前抛头露面,她们一个

个不知道嘴唇应该做出什么样的形态,脑袋应该摆出怎样的姿势…

11.O Captain! My Captain! 啊,船长!我的船长!

0 Captain! my captain! our fearful trip is done, 啊,船长!我的船长!我们艰险的航程已经终了, The ship has weather‘d every rack, the prize we sought is won, 这船度过了一个个险阻,我们追寻的目标已经达到,

The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, 港口就在前面,我听到了钟声,听到了人们在纵情欢腾,

While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and darling; 一双双眼睛渴望着平稳的龙骨,我们的船坚定而勇猛;

But o heart! heart! heart! 可是啊,心呀!心呀!心呀!

O the bleeding drops of red, 啊,殷红的血在流淌,

Where on the deck my captain lies, 我的船长躺在甲板上,

Fallen cold and dead. 人已死去,浑身冰凉.

12.I never in my life saw a man more intent on being agreeable than Mr. Elton. It is downright

labour to him where ladies are concerned. With men he can be rational and unaffected, but when he has ladies to please every feature works. 我还没见过一个比埃尔顿先生更想讨人喜欢的人.对女人,他毫不掩饰地一味讨好.在俺男人面前,他头脑还算清醒,也不装腔作势,可是见了女人,整副面孔不知有多么做作.

13.―How she has changed! Thank heaven she didn‘t recognize me,‖ muttered Father, mopping

his face with a handkerchief. ―…She was a lovely young thing, very graceful. I fell in love with her, and she with me.‖―她变化多大啊!谢天谢地,她没认出我来,‖父亲小声说道,一面用拿手帕擦擦脸. ―她是个可爱的年轻小姐,我疯狂地爱上了她,她也疯狂地爱上了我.‖14.I was in the middle before I knew that I had begun. 我是到了不能自拔的时候,才发现爱上

了你.

15.Oh, yes, I want to tell you. I don‘t want you wandering about this. Her father rejected our

romance. I was a foreigner. I had no prospects, and was dependent on my father. 哦,不.我要告诉你.我不想让你胡思乱想.她父亲反对我们恋爱.我是个外国人,没什么前途,还要依靠父亲.

16.They have become, through marketing, word of mouth, and demonstrable reliability, the

common pants of America. 通过市场营销,口口相传,以及凭借显而易见的可靠性,牛仔裤已经成为美国的寻常裤装.

17.The cold weather frosted up the track last night. 昨晚天气寒冷,跑道上结了霜.

18.It was wicked, that is what it was-just blasphemous, and no more becoming to a meek and

humble professor of- 这叫作不知好歹,就是这么回事-无非是冒犯神明的大胆妄为,根本就和你装出的那副温和谦让的派头不相称,你明明是个伪君子,却偏要假惺惺地自名为…19.…nor was Mts. Hurst, who had married a man of more fashion than fortune, less disposed to

consider to his house as her home when it suited her. …而那位赫斯特夫人嫁了个家财不足,派头有余的绅士,因而一旦得便,也很情愿把弟弟的家当做自己的家.

20.The snow lay yards deep in our road; and, as we floundered on, my companion wearied me

with constant reproaches that I had not brought a pilgrim‘s staff…路上的雪有几码深,我们蹒跚走去,我的同伴只管唠唠叨叨地埋怨我连一根朝圣用的拐杖都没有带…

21.He resolve, however, had been taken, and it seemed vacillating even to childishness to

abandon it now, unless for graver reasons. How could she face her parents, get back her box,

and disconcert the whole scheme for the rehabilitation of her family, on such sentimental grounds. 然而,她当初已打定了主意,如果没有更重要的原因,现在再改变主意,这似乎太游移不定了,甚至太孩子气了.她怎么能这样感情用事,居然敢当着父母的面,去把箱子取回来,从而打乱重整家业的全盘计划呢?

22.But the gaiety does not ring true and anybody who has just one drink too many is apt to lapse

into lachrymose melancholy. 但是这种欢快听上去并不真实,任何人呢只要多喝一杯,就会悲从中来,潸然泪下..

23.For those who may be in some doubt as to the nature of chores, their variety, their pleasures

and their drudgery, I am prepared to deliver a short disquisition. 有些人不太清楚家务事的性质、繁杂和甘苦,我打算对此作点探讨.

第三章翻译的方法

一:

划分规则一:1.直译

}局限于语言层面的价值取向

2.意译

划分规则二:1.异化法——对这些文化价值观的一种民族偏离主义的压力,接受外语文本的

语言及文化差异,把读者带入外国情景

}立足于文化大环境下的价值取向

2.归化法——采取民族中心主义的态度,使外语文本符合译入语的文化价值

观,把原作者带入译入语文化

二:两种翻译法的发展

我国改革开放之前,20世纪时,归化法在翻译界占优势。归化法代表人物:严复、林纾、

朱生豪、张谷若、傅东华、杨必。异化法代表人物:鲁迅、董

秋斯、卞之琳

改革开放以后,西方译论引进,异化法逐渐成为主要翻译方法。

三:翻译应遵循的原则:异化、归化并用互补,异化为主,归化为辅,异化和归化的运用

要注意限度。在可能的情况下,尽量实行异化译法;如果异化译法

不能完全达意,或者不能完全通畅,则可考虑汉语的行文习惯,

做出一定的归化处理;如果异化译法彻底行不通,译者也不必勉

为其难,舍其表层形式,传达其深层含义。

四:注意

1.异化法运用的限度:一是译语语言文化的限度,二是译语读者接受能力的限度

2.对于原文的形象语言,有两种情况可以采取归化译法:一是原文的语言虽然形象,甚

至也很新鲜,但却无法“照实”传译出来;二是原文的形象语言已不再新鲜,用不着“照实”传译。

3.汉语成语的运用:

我们在翻译外国作品时不宜使用的汉语成语:

一是反映中华民族特殊习俗的,二是带有汉字特征的,三是含有中国地名的,四是含

有中国人名的。(详见P43)

五.例句分析

1. The Gardiners stayed a week at Longhorn; and what with t he Philips‘s, the Lucases, and the

officers, there was not a day without its engagement. (J. Austen: Pride and Prejudice, Ch.2, V.II)

加德纳夫妇在朗博恩住了一个星期,由于和菲利普斯家、卢卡斯家还有军官们有礼尚往来,每天都少不了要饮宴一番。

2. I supposed I should be condemned in Hareton Earnshaw‘s heart, if not by his mouth, to the

lowest pit in the infernal regions… (E. Bronte: Wuthering Heights, Ch.18, V.II)

我想,就算哈雷顿·厄恩肖嘴上不说,心里肯定会诅咒我下到地狱的最底层。

3. Unless you‘ve an ace up your sleeve, we are dished.

除非你袖中藏有王牌,否则我们是输定了。

4. He has fished in Manhattan’s wallet and dug out coins…(E.B.White:‖The There New Yorks‖)

他们将手伸进曼哈顿的钱袋子里去捞钱,只捞到几个小钱…..

5. As I remained in the Third Fourth three times as long as anyone else, I had three times as

much of it. I learned it thoroughly. Thus I got into my bones the essential structure of the ordinary English sentence—which is a noble thing.(W.Churchill:‖Harrow‖)

因为我在四年级三班待的时间是别人的三倍,所以我所受的这种训练也是别人的三倍。我已经彻底地掌握了它。就这样,普通英语句子的基本结构便深入到我的骨髓里——这可是件了不起的事。

6. Consequently Mr.Micawber was soon so overcome, that he mingled his tears with hers and

mine. (C.Dickens: David Copperfield, Ch.12)

结果是,不一会儿米考伯先生也受不住了,和她还有我,眼泪对流起来。

7. ―I known, Dad,‖ she said,‖I’m a selfish Pig. I‘ll think about it…‖ (J.Galsworthy: A Modern

comedy, p.47)

“我知道,爸爸,”她说,“我是一个自私鬼。我会考虑这个问题的……”

8. Miss Sedley was almost as flurried at the act of defiance as Miss Jemima had been; for,

consider, it was but one minute that she had left school, and the impressions of six years are not got over in that space of time.(W.M. Thackeray: Vanity Fair,Ch.1)

赛特力小姐坎肩这样大胆的行为,差不多跟吉米玛小姐一样吃惊。你想,她刚刚跨出校门一分钟,六年来受的教诲,哪能在这么短短的一刹那给忘掉呢?

9.She could not desert Tara; she belonged to the red acres far more than they could ever belong to her.(M.Mitchell: Gone with the Wind, p.20)

她不能放弃塔拉;这片红土地是属于她的,而她更是永远属于这片红土地的。

10. The yeomanry is precisely the order of people with whom I feel I can have nothing to do. A

degree or two lower, and a creditable appearance might interest me; I might have hope to be useful to their families in some way or other. But a farmer can need none of my help, and is therefore in one sense as much above my notice as in every other he is below it.(J.Austen: Emma, Ch.4, V.I)

自耕农正是我认为和我无关的那种人。一个地位低一二等但外貌看起来还可靠的人可能引起我的兴趣;我希望能在某些方面帮得上忙。但一个庄稼汉可能不需要我的帮助,所以从这个意义上说,他一方面不需要我的关心,另一方面也不值得我关心。

11. High buildings and large mansions are springing up like mushrooms in Beijing.

在北京,高楼大厦犹如雨后春笋般地涌现。

12. Each of us has his carrot and stick. In my case, the stick is my slackening physical condition, which keeps me from beating opponents at tennis whom I overwhelmed two years ago. My carro t is to win. (C.Tucker:‖Fear of Dearth‖)

我们人人都有自己的压力和动力。就我而言,这压力就是我日趋衰弱的身体状况,两年前还是我手下败将的网球对手,我现在却打不过了。我的动力就是要赢球。

13.‖Didn‘t know you were in the States, Mitty,‖groaned Remington. ―Coals to Newcastle, bringing Mitford and me up here for a tertiary.‖(J.Thurber: ‖The Secret Life of Walter Mitty‖) “我不知道你就在美国,密蒂,”雷明顿嘟囔着说。“把我和米特福德叫来治疗这第三期梅毒病,岂不是多此一举?”

14. A man of honour could not have doubted the intention, but Mr.Darcy chose to doubt it—or to treat it as a merely conditional recommendation, and to assert that I have forfeited all claim to it by extravagance, imprudence, in short anything or nothing.(J.Austen: Pride and Prejudice, Ch.16, V.I)

一个体面的人是不会怀疑先人的意图的,可是达西先生却偏要怀疑——或者说偏要把那视为只是有条件地举荐我,还一口断定我完全失去了受举荐的资格,说我生活铺张,举止鲁莽,总之,欲加之罪,何患无辞。

15. Barbara Tober observes that the bridesmaids, in the days when many brides were mere children, were called upon to assist her with dressing and with the logistics of moving to her new home. (T.Tuleja:‖ Wedding Attendants‖)

芭芭拉·托伯说,过去许多新娘只不过是孩子,因此会请来女傧相帮助她们梳妆打扮,并做好其搬往新家的后勤工作。

16.‖Of course it may,‖ said Angel. ‖was it not proved nineteen hundred years ago——if I may trespass upon your domain a little?‖

“当然可以,”安琪说道,“恕我冒昧地说一句你们的行话:这个事实不是一千九百年前就被证明过了吗?”

17. I passed out of my mind, and the next thing I knew I was sitting down on the ground, very cold in the shadows, and looking up at the rock where I had been within an eyelash of eternity…There are such reflections, and for some of them I have the

names.(N.S.Monaday:‖The End of My Childhood‖)

我当时晕了过去,等醒过来发现自己坐在地上,阴影笼罩中,只觉得浑身冷冰冰的。我抬头看看上面的石壁,我刚才撑在那里险些丧生……现在我还能回忆起来,其中一些我还能说出一些名目来。

18.Second, there is the New York of the commuter——the city that is devoured by locusts each day and spat out each night.

其次就是家住郊区、乘公交车到市内上班的人们的纽约——这座城市每到白天就被如蝗虫般地人群吞噬,每到夜晚又被吐出来。

19.While the abilities of the nine-hundredth abridger of the History of England…are eulogized by

a thousand pens, there seems almost a general wish of decrying the capacity and undervaluing the labour of the novelist…

有人抛出《英国史》的不知是第几百个删节本…..诸如此般的才干受到了上千文人墨客的赞颂;然而人们几乎总是愿意诋毁小说家的才能,贬损小说家的劳动……

20. With determination, with luck, and with the help from lots of good people, I was able to rise from the ashes.

由于我的决心,好运气以及许多善良人们的帮助,我终于获得了新生。

21. Mr.Weston was a great favourite, and there was not a creature in the world to whom she spoke with such unreserved, as to his wife; not any one, to whom she related with such conviction of being listened to and understood, of being always interesting and always intelligible, the little affairs, arrangements, perplexities and pleasures of her father and herself.

她非常喜欢韦斯顿先生,而他的那位太太,则是她天下最能推心置腹的人;她和父亲但凡有什么安排,或者遇到什么琐碎的、为难的或高兴的事,还就爱跟那位太太讲,知道她喜欢听,善解人意,而且总是很感兴趣,总能心领神会。

第四章

第一节

1. It happened in one of those picturesque Danish taverns that cater to tourists and where English is spoken. (R. Zack: ―The Date Father Didn‘t Keep‖)

故事发生在丹麦的一家雅致的小旅馆里; 这种小旅馆备有酒食招待游客,而且讲英语。

2. People began drinking in their own homes because, after 1920, that was the only legal place they could drink. (T. Tuleja: ―Cocktail Hour‖)

人们开始在自己家里喝酒,因为1920年以后,那是可以喝酒的唯一合法场所。

3. …and the respect which he felt for her high rank, and his veneration for her as patroness, mingling with a very good opinion of her himself, of his authority as a clergyman, and his rights as a rector, made him altogether a mixture of pride and obsequiousness, self-importance and humility.(J. Austen: Pride and Prejudice)

…他一方面敬仰凯瑟琳夫人的崇高地位,尊崇她作为自己的女恩主,另一方面又非常看重自己,珍惜自己做教士的权威,做区长的权利,这一切造就了他一身兼有傲慢与恭顺、自负与谦卑的双重性格。

4. On the morning of a fine June day, my first bonny little nursling, and the last of the ancient

Earnshaw stock, was born. (E. Bronte: Wuthering Heights,Ch.8, V.I)

六月份一个阳光明媚的早晨,我要抚养的第一个小宝宝,也是古老的厄恩肖家族的最后一根苗,出世了。

5. While the present century was in its teens, and on one sunshiny morning in June, there drove up to the great iron gate of Miss Pinkerton‘s academy for young ladies, on Chiswick Mall, a large family coach, with two fat horses in blazing harness, driven by a fat coachman in a three –cornered hat and wig, at the rate of four miles an hour.(W.M.: Vanity Fair, Ch.1)

当时我们这世纪刚开始了十几年。在六月里的一天早上,天气晴朗,契息克林阴道上平克顿女子学校的大铁门前面来了来了一辆宽敞的私人马车。拉车的两匹肥马套着雪亮的马具,肥胖的车夫带了假头发和三角帽子,赶车的速度不过一小时四英里。

6 …and the rest of the morning was easily whiled away, in lounging round the kitchen garden, examining the bloom upon the walls, and listening to the gardener‘s lamentations upon blights, in dawdling through the greenhouse, where the loss of her favorite plants, unwarily exposed, and nipped by the lingering frost, raised the laughter of Charlotte, and in visiting her poultry-yard, where in the disappointed hopes of her dairy-maid, by hens of forsaking their nests, or being stolen by a fox, or in the repaid decease of promising young brood, she found fresh sources of merriment. (J. Austen: Sense and Sensibility, Ch. 6, V.Ⅲ)

…大家来到菜园,一面观赏墙上的花朵,一面听着园丁抱怨种种病虫害。接着走进暖房,因为霜冻结束的晚,再加上管理不慎,夏洛特最喜爱的几种花草被冻死了,逗得她哈哈大笑。最后来到家禽饲养场,只听饲养员沮丧地说起老母鸡不是弃巢而去,就是被狐狸叼走,一窝小鸡本来很有希望,不想纷纷死去,于是夏洛特又发现新的笑料。就这样,上午余下的时间很快便消磨过去了。

7. She has been doing everything in her power by thinking and talking on the subject, to give greater – what shall I call it? susceptibility to her feelings; which are naturally lively enough. (J. Austen: Pride and Prejudice, Ch.5, V.Ⅲ)

她总是想着这件事,谈论这件事,极力想使自己变得更—我该怎么说呢?更容易触动情怀,尽管她天生已经够多情的了。

8. …but she would not allow that any objections there had material weight with Mr. Darcy, whose pride, she was convinced, would receive a deeper wound from the want of importance of his friend‘s connections, than from their want of sens e…(J. Austen: Pride and Prejudice, Ch.10, V.Ⅱ)

…但她又认为,这方面的欠缺对达西先生不会有多大影响,因为她相信,达西先生觉得最使他有伤自尊的,是他的朋友跟门户低微的人家结亲,至于这家人有没有见识,他倒不会计较…

9. …and my correct name, Spencer-Churchill, began with an ―S‖, I gained no more advantage from the alphabet than from the wider sphere of letters. (W. Churchill: ―Harrow‖)

…由于我确切的姓是斯宾塞-丘吉尔,以S打头,因而我在更广泛的学业范围所占的便宜比不按字母排序占的便宜多。(S)

10.Mr. Bonnet was among the earliest of those who waited on Mr. Bingley. He had always intended to visit him, though to the last always assuring his wife that he should not go; and till the evening after the visit was paid, she had no knowledge of it. (J. Austen: Pride and Prejudice, Ch.2, V.Ⅰ)

贝内特先生是最先拜访宾利先生的人之一。本来他一直打算去拜见他,可在太太面前却始终咬定不想去;直到拜访后的当天晚上,贝内特太太才知道实情。

11. Then what? Well, mankind is not doing a very good job of running the earth right now. Maybe,

when the time comes, we ought to step gracefully aside and hand over the job to someone who can do it better. (I. Asimov: “The Difference between a Brain and a Computer”)

到那时会怎么样呢?唉,反正人类现在也没有做好管理地球的工作。也许到那时候,我们真该豁达大度地让到一边,把工作交给更为称职的去做。

12. In consequence large numbers of visitors of both sexes used to wait on the school steps, in order to see me march by; and I frequently heard the irreverent comment, ―Why, he‘s last of all!‖(W. Churchill: ―Harrow‖)

因此常有许许多多的男男女女聚集在校园的台阶上,等着看我走过。我经常听到这句有失敬重的话:“啊,他原来是老末呀!”

13. I framed the words in my mind:‖ Pardon me, but have I done something to offend you?‖ But I realized I had done nothing –my color offended her. (J.H. Griffin: ―Into Mississippi‖)

我心里在嘀咕:“对不起,我有什么举动冒犯你了吗?”可我很清楚,我并未做出什么举动—是我的肤色触犯了她。

第二节

1. The human brain weights three pounds, but in that three pounds are ten billion neurons and a hundred billion smaller cells. These many billions of cells are interconnected in a vastly complicated network that we can‘t begin to unravel yet…computer switches and components number in the thousands rather than in the billions. (I. Asimov: “The Difference between a Brain and a Computer”)

人脑只有三磅重,但就在这三磅物质中,却包含着一百亿个神经细胞,及一千亿个更小的细胞。这上百个、上亿个的细胞相互联系,形成一个无比复杂的网络,人类迄今还无法解开这其中的奥秘…电脑的转换器和元件只是成千上万,而不是上百亿、上千亿。

2. By comparison with the narrow, ironclad days of fathers, there was a expansiveness, I thought, in the days of mothers. They went to see neighbors, to shop in town, to run errands at school, at library, at church.(S.R.:“Women and Man”)

跟做父亲的那种狭窄、紧张的生活相比,我觉得母亲的日子过得比较宽松自在。她们上邻居家串门,去城里买东西,到学校、图书馆、教堂跑跑腿儿。

3. Mr. Collins, meanwhile, was meditating solitude on what had passed. He thought too well of himself to comprehend on what motive his cousin could refuse him; and though his pride was hurt, he suffered in no other way. His regard for her was quite imaginary; and the possibility of her deserving her mother‘s reproach prevented his feeling any regret. (J. Austen: Pride and Prejudice, Ch.20, V.Ⅰ)

这当口,柯林斯先生把刚才的情景沉思默想了一番。他把自己看得太高了,实在弄不明白表妹为什么要拒绝他。他虽说自尊心受到了伤害,但除此之外并不感到难过。他对伊丽莎白的爱完全是凭空想象,她可能真像她母亲说的那样又任性又傻,因此他丝毫也不感到遗憾了。

4. You must remember, my dear mother, that I have never considered this matter as certain. I have had my doubts, I confess; but they are fainter than they were, but they may soon be entirely done away… (J. Austen: Sense and Sensibility, Ch. 15, V.Ⅰ)

你应该记住,我的好妈妈,我从来没有把事情看得一定如此。我承认我有疑虑,但是不像以前那么重了,也许很快就会彻底打消…

5. ―It is hard to forgive, and to look at those eyes, and feel those wasted hands,‖ he answered, ‖ ―kiss me again; and don‘t let me see your eyes! I forgive what you have done to me, I love my murderer—but yours! How can I? ‖ (E. Bronte: Wuthering Heights, Ch.1, V.Ⅱ)

―宽恕是很难的,就是看看你那双眼睛,摸摸你那双消瘦的手,也是很难的,‖希斯克利夫回

答道。“再亲亲我吧,别让我看见你的眼睛!我宽恕你对我的所作所为,我爱害了我的人—但是害了你的人!—我怎么能宽恕她呢?”

6. In a riot of scuba bubbles, tourists and guide plunged 110 feet into an underwater cavern. And, true to his word, the guide darted through the gloom, chasing sleek five feet long shadows. Not to worry. In the spectacular undersea world off Palau, the sharks are as laid back as the local residents. And who wouldn‘t be? Slung across the Pacific 800 miles southwest of Guam, the string of islands—eight inhabited, 200 or more still unpopulated—make up one of those increasingly rare commodities, a Pacific paradise.

随着潜水器咕噜咕噜的水泡声,旅游者和导游潜入了水下110英里的一个洞天。导游的话不假,他飞快地穿过阴暗层,去追逐那光滑的有五英尺长的影子。不用担心。在帕劳一带壮丽的海底世界里,鲨鱼也像当地居民一样悠然自得。又有谁不会这样呢?

7. From the listless looks of some fellow trotters, I gathered I am not alone in my unenthusiasm: Bill-paying, it seems, would be about as diverting. Nonetheless, we continue to jog; more, we continue to choose to jog. (C. Tucker: ―Fear of Dearth‖)

从跟我一起跑步的一些人的倦怠神情可以断定,不喜欢跑步的并非只有我一个人,:看来,这笔付账单也有趣不了多少。不过人们还是坚持跑步;而且,还就情愿跑步。

8. I have no pity! I have no pity! The more the worms writhe, the more I yearn to crush out their entrails! It is a moral teething, and I grind with greater energy, in proportion to the increase of pain.

(E. Bronte: Wuthering Heights, Ch.14, V.Ⅰ)

我才不讲怜悯呢!我才不讲怜悯呢!虫子越扭动,我就越恨不得挤出它的内脏!这种心理作用就像出牙一样,越觉得痛,我就磨得越起劲。

9. At that ball, while I had the honor of\ dancing with you, I was first made acquainted, by Sir William Lucas‘s accidental information, that Bingley‘s attentions to your sister h\ad given rise to a general expectation of their marriage. (J. Austen: Pride and Prejudice, Ch.12, V.Ⅱ)

在那次舞会上,我有幸跟你跳舞时,才偶然从威廉·卢卡斯爵士那里得知,宾利向令姐献殷勤已经弄得沸沸扬扬,大家都以为他们要结婚。

10. The terrain of New York is such that a resident sometimes travels farther, in the end, than a commuter. The journey of\ the composer Irving Berlin from Cherry Street in the lower East Side to an apartment updown was through an alley and was only three or four miles in length; but it was like going three times around the world. (E. B. White: ―The Three New Yorks‖)

纽约的地形比较特别,有时住在城里的人最终走的路比上班族还要远。作曲家欧文·伯林从下东区切里街走到住宅区公寓,中间只经过一条小巷,仅仅只有三四英里长,\但他好像绕着地球走了三圈。

11. ―He‘s been in his room all day,‖ the landlady said to him ?Mr. Anderson, you ought to go out and take a walk on nice fall day like this,‘ but he didn‘t feel like it.‖ (E。Hemingway: ―The Killers‖)

“他成天呆在屋里,”房东太太在楼下说。“我估摸他不舒服。我跟他说:‘安德森先生,这么好的秋天天气,你该出去散散步。’可他就是不想出去。”

第五章翻译的语言对比规律

一.语义的差异:

1.英汉词语意义的对应程度(分为三类):

A.完全对应(限于一些科技术语和少数专有名词)eg.pneuminia—肺炎

B.部分或大部分对应:parent:1."父亲或母亲" 2.“养父或养母”

C.完全或大不部分不对应:teenage:原意是"十三岁至十九岁的男女",汉语中直接译成“青少年”

Ps:英语存在一词多义现象,需要仔细揣摩,捕捉其确切含义,如,“thing”原意是“东西”,下面的例子中都不译成“东西”

For example:

1.I believed then that I would die there,and I saw with a terrible clarity the things of the valley below.

这时我觉得我要死在哪儿了,而下面山谷里的景致却看得异常清晰。

2.The large mammalian brain is the most complicated thing,for its size,known to us.

大型哺乳动物的大脑,就其体积而言,是我们所知晓的最复杂的机体。

3.When I am finished ,things will be precisely as they were before.

每次做完以后,一切都依然如故……

4.Mr.Somerville —a most delightful man,to whom my debt is great —was charged with the duty of teaching the stupidest boys the most disregarded thing—namely,to write mere English.

萨默维尔先生——一个令我感激不尽的、十分讨人喜欢的老师——负责教授最愚笨的学生最令人看不起的课程,即用英文写作。

5.What a fine thing for our girls!

真是女儿们的好福气啊!

Ps.注意一些俗语的意义:

For example:

6.…in the end I had to have a caesarean ,which just knocked me for six.

……最后我只好做剖腹产,这下可把我彻底摧垮了。

7.To be sure it would have been more for the advantage of

conversation,had Miss Lydia Bennet come upon the town...

当然,假若莉迪亚*贝内特小姐踏进那烟花世界……那就更会让人说三道四。

二:词法的差异:

现代汉语的形态变化:主要指一些表示语法意义的曲折变化,包括性、数、格、时、体、语态、语气、人称、比较级等。

1.时态助词:A.前置的时态助词(过去,曾今,现在……)

B.附着的时态助词(过,着,了,起来……)

C.后置的时态助词(了,来着……)

For example:

8.Mrs.Long has just been there, and she told me all about it.

朗太太刚刚来过,她把这事一五一十地全告诉我了。

9.I was and still am working as an English teacher in the school.

我过去是,现在仍然是这所学校的英语教师。、

10.I would have asked why Mrs .Dean had deserted the Grange;but it was impossible to delay her at such a crisis,so i turned away and made my exit...

我原想问问迪安太太为什么丢下田庄走了,但是在这个节骨眼上是不能耽搁她的,于是我便转身走了……

11."What was I talking of ?"said she,beginning again when they were all in the street.

“我刚才说什么来着?”等大伙来到了街上了,她又说起来了。

2.量词:A.名量词:一个人,两只鸡,三份报

B.动量词:去一次,走一趟,等一下

12.Before I arrived in sighted of it,all that remained of day was a beamless,amber light along the west;but i could see every pebble on the path ,and every blade of grass,by that splendid moon.

我还没有望见那座住宅,天早已暗下来了,只有西边天际还剩下一抹朦胧的琥珀色的余晖,但是我仍可借助皎洁的月光,看清小路上的每一颗石子,每一片草叶。

13."No,read it over first correctly,without a single mistake."

“不行,先给我准确地一遍,不许有一个错。”

3.语气助词:A.陈述语气词:的,了,而已

B疑问语气词:吗,吧,呢,

C.祈使语气词:吧,罢,呀

For example:

14.…but to almost everybody she was a fine and picturesque country girl,and no more.

……不过,几乎在每个人看来,她只不过是一个标志如画的乡下姑娘而已。

15.“My dear Mr .Bennet,”replied his wife,"how can you be so tiresome !you must know that i am thinking of his marrying one of them."

“亲爱的贝内特先生,”太太答道,“你怎么这么令人讨厌!

告诉你吧,我在琢磨他娶她们中的一个做太太呢。”

4.代词:人称代词,疑问代词,指示代词

Ps:翻译"he replied" ,"she replied"时,需要“直译其名”

For example:

16."Can you deny that you have done it?"she repeated.

With assumed tranquility he then replied,"i have no wish of denying that i did everything in my power to separate my friend from your sister..."

“你敢说你没干吗?”伊丽莎白又问了一遍。

达西故作镇定地答道:“我不想否认,我的确竭尽全力拆散了我的朋友和你姐姐的婚姻……”Ps.翻译“it”“they”时,有时不可直接译成“它”“它们”

For example:

17.The first point about chores is that they are repetitive.they come every day or thereabouts,and once done they require after a certain time to be done again.

家务事的第一个特点,是反反复复。几乎天天都有,而且做完以后,过一段时间又要重做一番。

处理指示代词的方法:

1.如实保留

2.删去不译

3.换成它所指代的名词

4.改成“其”“之”

For example:

I must confess that with their repetition,and perhaps because of their very inconsequence ,chores can in the end evoke a mild sort of satisfaction.

我必须承认,正由于其反复性,或许还由其无关紧要,家务事到头来还能给人带来些许的满足感。

三.句法的差异:

1.英语重形合,汉语重意合:英语是用“明示”手段,汉语用“隐含"方式,来表示各自的语法意义和逻辑关系:

18.As we resumed walking I blurted out,"It's a lucky thing it happened that way.You wouldn't have met Mother."

我们继续往前走,我又冒出一句话:“这样倒是一件幸事。不然你就遇不上妈妈了。”

19.Ordered!Oh,everything is ordered when a person has to find some way out when he has been stupid.

命中注定!啊,一个人干出了傻事情,要替自己找理由,那就什么都是命中注定!

20.You and the girls may go,or you may send them by themselves,which perhaps will be still better,for as you are as handsome as any of them.Mr.Bingley might like you the best of the party. 你带着女儿们去就行啦,要不你索性打发她们自己去,这样或许更好些,因为你的姿色并不亚于她们中任何一个,你一去,宾利先生倒作兴看中你呢。

21.It will be no use to us,if twenty such should come since you will not visit them.

既然你不肯去拜访,即使搬来二十个,那对我们又有什么用。

2.语序差异:英语语序相对灵活,有一定的语序倒置现象;汉语语序相对固定,倒装句较少。Ps:把英语的倒装句译成汉语时,一般采用正常的“主,谓”结构,而宾语该提前的提前。For example:

22.Not only did we learn English parsing thoroughly,but we also practised continually English analysis.

我们不仅彻底地学会了句法分析,而且不断地练习英文分析。

23.Yet few knew,and still fewer considered this.

然而,这一点很少有人察觉,也更少有人去关注。

24.That altered,frightened ,fat face told his secret well enough.

他的胖脸蛋儿吓得走了样子,他心里的打算一看就知道。

25.She had such a kindly,smiling,tender,gentle,generous heart of her own.

她心地厚道,为人乐观,性情温柔,待人和蔼,器量又大。

26.I saw a little,yellow,ragged,lame,unshaven beggar.

我看见一个要饭的,身材矮小,脸色苍黄,衣衫褴褛,瘸腿,满脸胡子。

Ps.汉语的状语的常位一般是在被修饰的谓语动词的前面,但有时为了强调,也放在至于的前面。

27.Up went the arrow into the air.

嗖的一声,箭射上了天。

Ps:否定词"not"的位置

1.句子否定,指否定主谓之间的肯定关系——在英汉中,否定词都放在谓语动词前面

2.部分否定,指否定句子的某一部分——译成汉语时,需要根据汉语的习惯加以调整。

For example;

28.At any rate,she cannot grow many degrees worse,without authorizing us to lock her up for the rest of her life.

不管怎么说,她要是变得更坏的话,那我们以后就把她一辈子关在家里。

29.The college student caught cheating does not even blush.He shrugs his shoulders and comments:"Everybody does it,and besides,I can't see that it really hurts anybody."

大学生考试作弊被发现,连脸都不红,而只是耸耸肩,振振有词地说:“大家都是这么干的。再说,我看这实在不会损害任何人。”

四.思维的差异

西方人喜欢抽象,长于分析,中国喜欢具体,长于综合。

30.She sits up late.

她很晚才就寝。(sits up:熬夜)

Ps:对于“doubt”“whether”,不能死板的翻译成“怀疑”“是不是”

31.I doubt whether he likes this book.

我看他不喜欢这本书。

32.I doubt whether he does not like this book.

我想他是喜欢这本书的。

Ps:back指称过去,forward指称未来,不可颠倒:

33.In this regard a chore is the very opposite of a "happening "—that strange sort of event which a few years back was so much in fashion.

在这个意义上,家务事与“偶然事件”——几年前盛行的事件剧里的那种异常事件——恰好相反。

Ps:"yes"和'no"不一定任何时候分别指代肯定意义和否定意义

34.I said,"Dad, you don't have to —"

“Oh,yes , I want to tell you.I don't want you wondering about this... ”

我说:“爸,你用不着——”

“哦,不,我要告诉你。我不想让你胡思乱想……”

Ps:对于英语比较级地翻译不能绝对化,直接翻译成“比……更……”、“没有……来得……”、“与……一样……”

35.Jane was as much gratified by this as her mother could be,though in a quieter way.

简和母亲一样,觉得非常满意,只是不像母亲那样叽叽喳喳。

Ps:在将英语翻译成汉语时,需要将抽象化为具体

36...for what can be prettier than an image of Love on his knees before beauty?

……痴情公子向美貌佳人跪下求婚,还不是一副最赏心悦目的画儿吗?

37.Phases of her childhood lurked in her aspect still.

她的容貌还隐约保留着童年的特征。

38.It is often said... that our seeming great growth in social morality has oddly enough taken place where private morality...seems to be declining.

人们常说,……我们的社会道德似乎有了长足的进步,而令人奇怪的是,就在我们这个社会里,个人道德观念……却似乎正在沉沦。

第六章

The happiness of having such a sister was their first effusion, and the fair ladies mingled in embraces and tears of joy.

她们首先倾吐了要做姑嫂的喜悦,两位小姐高兴的一次次拥抱,洒下了欣喜的泪花。

Tess‘s pride would not allow her to turn her head again, to learn what her father‘s meaning was, if he had any…

苔丝处于自尊,不愿再回头看她父亲在搞什么名堂,如果他真在高什么名堂的话…

It‘s my conviction that though men may be no more wicked than they always have been, they seem less likely to be ashamed.

我相信,人们虽然未必比以前还要不讲道理,但似乎比以前更加不知羞耻。

I saw that his face was pale. I followed his eyes and looked across the room to a woman who was setting a tray of drinks before some customers.

我见他脸色煞白。我循着他的目光,看到餐厅那边有个女人端着托盘给几位客人上饮料。

Father passed his hand over his face.

父亲用手摸了摸脸。

They were attended from morning to night by female helpers, wives and nurses and secretaries.

从早到晚,都有妻子、护士、秘书这样的女帮手服侍他们。

I was truly dumbfounded by this deep fury that possessed her whenever she looked at me.

她一见到我就这样气势汹汹,真把我惊呆了。

They can be purchased pre-washed, pre-faded, pre-shrunk for the suitably proletarian look.

人们还可以买到经过水洗,褪色,缩水处理的牛仔裤,衣服和无产者的形象。

The task was done, not free from further blunders…

课上完了,做学生的并没有根绝错误

Levi‘s jeans were first introduced to the East, apparently, during the dude-ranch craze in the 1930s…

李维的牛仔裤最初引进到东部,显然是在20世纪30年代的农场度假热潮中…

And as each and all of them were warmed without by the sun, so each had a private little sun for her soul to bask in …

她们大家,不仅个个都给太阳晒得暖烘烘的,而且人人心里都有一个小太阳,温暖着各自的心灵

One must remember that human beings also can only do what they are ―programmed‖ to do. Our genes ―program‖ us the instant the fertilized ovum is formed, and our potentialities are limited by that ―program‖

我们应该记住,人类同样也只能按照“程序”办事。受精卵已形成,“基因”就给我们编好了程序,我们的潜能也就要受到这个“程序”的限制。

In the course of my travels in Amercia I have been impressed by a kind of fundamental malaise which seems to me extremely common and which poses difficult problems for the social reformer. 我在美国旅行期间,注意到了一种根深蒂固的忧郁症。这种忧郁症似乎极其普通,这就给社会改革家出了难题。

Each year, more than 25,000,000 items of Levi‘s clothing are sold——including more than 83,000,000 pairs of riveted blue jeans.

每年李维服装的销售量超过2.5亿——其中包括8,300多万条钉有铜铆钉的蓝色牛仔裤The human brain weights three pounds, but in that three pounds are ten billion neurons and a hundred billion smaller cells.

人脑只有三磅重,但就在这三磅重物中,却包含着一百亿个神经细胞,以及一千亿个更小的细胞

The difference between me and these daughters was that they saw me ,because of me sex , as destined from birth to become like their fathers , and therefore as an enemy to their desires.

我和这些女儿们的分歧在于:由于性别的缘故,他们认为我生来注定要成为他们父亲的那样的人,因此也就成为妨碍他们实现梦自己愿望的敌人。

Some have beautiful eyes, others a beautiful nose, others a beautiful mouth and figure : few, if any, had all.

她们有的长着漂亮的眼睛,有的圣者俏丽的鼻子,有的有着妩媚的嘴巴、婀娜的身段;但是这样样都美,虽然不能说一个没有,却也是寥寥无几。

I fell madly in love with her, and she with me.

我疯狂的爱生了她,她也狂热的爱上了我

In a moment she reappeared to hurl my change and the ticket on the counter with such force most

of it fell on the floor at my feet.

不一会儿功夫,他又回来了,将零钱和车票往柜台上猛地一摔,打扮都洒落在我脚边。The Harrow custom of calling the roll is different from that of Eton.

哈罗公学的点名方式跟伊顿公学有所不同。

On August 16, 1983,they started for the South to seek their fortune.

1983年8月16日,他们动身去南方寻求生路

―C ontrary ,then,‖ answered another, in deep but softened tones. ―A nd now, kiss me, for minding so well.‖

―那好,相反,‖另一个人以深沉而柔和的语调答道。“那就亲亲我吧,我学的这么用心。”Another person runs to avoid doing anything else, to dodge a decision about how to lead his life or a realization that his life is leading nowhere.

另一个人跑步是为了避而不做别的事,不对如何生活做出决定,不去感受自己生活碌碌无为。They were of course all intending to be surprised; but their astonishment was beyond their expectation…

大家都做好了惊讶的准备,但却没料到会惊讶到这个地步…

He had an aversion to yield so completely to his feelings, choosing rather to absent himself; and eating once in 24 hours seemed sufficient sustenance for him.

他不愿意完全凭感觉用,因此宁肯自己不来吃饭。看来24小时吃一顿饭对他来说是足够了I knew her before I ever met your mother.

我没遇见你妈妈之前就认识她了

Even so , I still insist that for the individual himself nothing is more important than this personal, interior sense of right and wrong and his determination to follow that rather than to be guided by what everybody does or merely the criterion of“social usefulness‖

即便如此,我仍然坚持认为,对个人而言,最重要的莫过于这种根植于个人心灵深处的是非感,以及坚决按这种是非感行事的决心,而不是随波逐流,或仅仅以是否“对社会有益”为准则

Almost from the first, Strauss had his cloth dyed the distinctive indigo that gave blue jeans their names, but it was not until the 1870s that he added the copper rivets which have long since become a company trademark.

几乎从一开始,施特劳斯就把他的布料染成别具一格的靛蓝色,因此便有了蓝色牛仔裤之称。不过,直至19世纪70年代,他才往裤子上加上了铜铆钉;长期以来,这铜铆钉就成了公司的标志

I believed then that I would die there, and I saw with a terrible clarity the things of the valley below. They were not the less beautiful to me.

这是我觉得我要死在那儿了,而下面山谷里德景致却看的异常清晰。在我看来,这些景致依然那样美丽。

Sir William and Lady Lucas are determined to go, merely on that account, for in general you know they visit no new comers.

卢卡斯爵士夫妇打定主意要去,还不就是为了这个缘故,因为你知道,他们通常是不去拜访新搬来的邻居的。

No, if I read any, it should be Mrs. Radcliffe‘s. Her novels are amusing enough; they are worth reading; some fun and nature in them.

我要是看小说,那就看拉德克里夫夫人的。他的小说挺有意思的,值得一读。那里面多少有点逗趣的内容和对大自然的描写

Again, therefore, she applied herself to the key, and after moving it every possible way, for some instants, with the determined celebrity of hope‘s last effort, the door suddenly yielded to her hand. 因此,她又搬弄钥匙。怀着最后一线希望,她果断利索的朝着各个方向拧了一阵之后,柜门忽然打开了。

Mark his professions to my poor husband. Can anything be stronger?

你听听他对我那可怜丈夫说的话,还有比这更肉麻的吗?

第七章克服翻译症

带有翻译症的译文,是一种病态的译文。其危害表现在两个方面:

其一,语言不顺;其二,语义不通。

危害表现的原因:一、照搬英汉词典的释义;二、照搬原文的功能词;三、照搬原文的语序;四、照搬原文的表达方式。

克服翻译症的几个环节:

2.克服认识上的片面性。

3.在语汇问题上,不可望文生义。

4.在句法问题上,适当地保留一点欧化句法的特征。

5.最后要认真做好审校。

以下是正确的翻译:

1、When the lady ticket-seller saw me, her otherwise attractive face turned sour, violently so.

女售票员一见到我,原本颇为动人的面孔刷地一沉,变得煞是难看。

2、They draw no distinction and recognize no classes; they are merely American.

这种裤子对人不分贵贱,不讲等级,只要是美国人都可以穿。

3、I believed then that I would die there, and I saw with a terrible clarity the things of the valley below.

这时我觉得我要死在那儿了,而下面山谷里的景致却看得异常清晰。

4、It is far more than the look of disapproval one occasionally gets. This was so exaggeratedly hateful I would have been amused if I had not been surprised.

这种眼神比人们偶尔遭受的冷眼凶恶得多。那恶狠狠的样子表现得太过火了,我要不是因为大吃一惊,定会觉得很好笑。

5、I wondered how she would feel if she learned that the Negro before whom she had behaved in such an unlady-like manner was habitually a white man.

我心下思忖:她在一个黑人面前表现得如此有失淑女风度,她若是得知这个黑人其实是个白人时,不知作何感想。

6、I hate jogging.

我讨厌跑步。

7、…and then merciful ushers collected my piece of foolscap with all the others and carried it up to the Headmaster`s table.

最后,仁慈的助教将我的那张考卷连同别人的一起收走了,送到了校长的办公桌上。

8、At Eton the boys stand in a cluster and lift their hats when their names are called.

在伊顿,学生们站在一起,叫到名字就举举帽子。

9、…once again, the idea worked so well that word got around…

这一招果然凑效,消息再一次不胫而走。

10、Surely, though, if a computer can be made complex enough, it can be as creative as we. If it could be made as complex as a human brain, it could be the equivalent of a human brain and do whatever a human brain can do.

可是,如果能把电脑造得足够复杂的话,那它一定能像我们人一样富于创造力。倘若电脑能像人脑那样复杂,它就能与人脑旗鼓相当,完成人脑所能做的一切。

11、In consequence of his decision, I was in due course placed in the third, or lowest, division of the Fourth, or bottom, From.

由于他的决定,我给及时地编入了四年级三班,也就是最低年级的最低一班。

12、It used to be said that English people take their pleasures sadly.

以前人们常说,英国人享乐时也郁郁不乐。

13、I had scarcely passed my twelfth birthday when I entered the inhospitable regions of examinations…

我刚过了十二岁生日,就步入了令人头痛的考试区域…

14、But the steps became deeper and deeper, and at last I had to drop down the length of my body and more.

不过台阶越来越高,最后我得从跟我一样高、甚至比我还高的台阶上爬下去。

15、The woman appeared with our beer.

那个女人给我们送啤酒来了。

16、Last winter Stanford`s new e-commerce elective was the hottest thing on the business school`s campus, with 28 students using their single "silver bullet" to secure one of the 66 available spots.

去年冬天,斯坦福大学新开设的电子商务选修课成为商学院最热门的课程,28名学生各施绝招,以求在66个听课席中争得一席。

17、The study found that non-smoking wives of men who smoke cigarettes face a much greater than normal danger of developing lung cancer.

研究结果表明,丈夫抽烟,妻子不抽烟,那妻子得癌症的危险,要比一般人大得多。

第八章文体与翻译

文体分为实用文体和文学文体,文学文体又分为应用,科技,新闻等。

一、公文文体的翻译要严肃认真,反复阅读,悉心领悟原文精神;注意形式,包括程式、格式、体例等;语体风格与原文一致。

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.

在人类事件的发展过程中,当一个民族必须解除其和另一个民族之间的政治联系并依照自然的法则和自然之神的意旨,在世界列国中接受独立和平等的地位时,出于对人类公意的应有尊重,需要把他们不得不独立的原因公布于众。

我们认为下面这些真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物者赋予他们某些不可剥夺的权利,其中包括生命权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。为了保障这些权利,才在人们中间成立了政府,而政府的正当权力则来自被治理者的赞同。每当任何形式的政府损害这些目标时,人民就有权改变或废除它,以建立新的政府;这新政府必须建立在这样的原则基础上,并按照这样的方式来组织其权力机关,以便在人民看来它最能保障他们的安全和幸福。诚然,由于谨慎的考虑,建立已久的政府不应由于无关紧要的、一时的原因而予以变更的。过去的一切经验也正表明,任何苦难只要还能忍受,人类都宁愿忍受下去,而不愿废除他们就已习惯的政府以恢复自己的权益。

Tips:贴近原文,避免“字字对应“的机械翻译,文中划线部分的句子需要特别注意一下。

二、科技文体的翻译

科技英语的特点:大量使用科技词汇(科技词汇主要来源:借用常用词汇;通过现代英语构词法),多用动词现在时,非限定式和被动语态。

Vibration Technique Produces Stronger, Environmentally

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Telephones, TV parts, the computer mouse at your fingertips, parts inside a PC, and other everyday products are made with plastics using a process called injection molding. A Lehigh