文档库

最新最全的文档下载
当前位置:文档库 > 全国高等教育自学考试英语阅读试题历年试卷(20201016090234)

全国高等教育自学考试英语阅读试题历年试卷(20201016090234)

全国2003年10月高等教育自学考试

英语阅读(二)试题

课程代码:00596

Ⅰ. Directions: Match the words in Column A with their definitions in Column B.

Write the letter of the answer to each word in Column A on your ANSWER SHEET.

(10 points, 1 point for each)

A B

1. accrue A. using force, threats of punishment

2. intensive B. lasting for only a period of time

3. erase C. continuous, without break

4. constant D. to rub or scrape out

5. coercion E. to pass, flow or spread into every part of

6. vulnerable F. that is liable to be damaged

7. permeate G. to speak or argue in support of

8. contemporary H. to become larger or more by addition

9. plead I. the quality of keeping secret

10. confidentiality J. growing too much in a limited piece of land

Ⅱ. Directions: Read each of the following sentences carefully, and choose A, B,

C or

D that has the closest meaning to the underlined word or phrase. Write the

corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET. (10 points, 1 point for

each)

11. What breathtaking impertinence to advertise 1p OFF your soap or washing powder or dog food or whatever.

A. transmission

B. rudeness

C. distraction

D. politeness

12. A few years ago, our group at Saclay, in collaboration with a number of other

European Laboratories, orbited a telescope.

A. along with

B. in the light of

C. in agreement with

D. regardless of

13. If they fall behind too far on these obligations, they run the risk of having

their houses, cars or other items taken over or repossessed by the lenders.

A. homogeneity

B. appropriateness

C. responsibilities

D. probabilities

14. As a source of power, water is virtually inexhaustible.

A. inaccessible

B. insufficient

C. abundant

D. extinguishable

15. Astrid and I kept talking and the man continued to swing and lurch over us, thanking us profusely.

A. increasingly

B. confidentially

C. attributably

D. repeatedly

16. If the greenhouse effect produces lasting climatic change, national color preferences could radically reorientate.

A. change

B. come to an end

C. renew

D. start again

17. If you are animated, you are more likely to see animated listeners.

A. dull and stupid

B. active and lively

C. annoyed

D. respected

18. These countries fear that their industries will not be able to survive such

drastic cuts and that their national economies will suffer as a result.

A. sudden and severe

B. slow and continuous

C. clear and simple

D. far and wide

19. M ore people report they “feel” on the verge of a nervous breakdown.

A. on top of

B. instead of

C. on the point of

D. on behalf of

20. She was taken aback at the news that her brother had a car accident.

A. overjoyed

B. happy

C. sad

D. greatly surprised

Ⅲ. Directions: Scan Passage 1 and find the words which have roughly the meanings given below. Write the word you choose in the corresponding space on your ANSWER SHEET. (10 points, 1 point for each)

Note: The numbers in the brackets refer to the numbers of paragraphs in the passage.

21. exact; accurate (1)

22. statement explaining the meaning of a word or expression (1)

23. general (1)

24. to provide more details about something in order to make it clearer (1)

25. to have or use something together with someone else (2)

26. being everywhere at the same time (2)

27. information, usually in the from of facts or statistics that one can analyze

(2)

28. to join or bring something or people together so that they become one (3)

29. to plan, prepare, decide on all the details of something (3)

30. to change something into a different form (3)

Passage 1

1. Communication networks are arrangements of hardware and software that allow users to exchange information. This very broad definition will help you begin

learning about one of the fastest-growing areas in electrical engineering and

computer science. Once we examine some common communication networks, we will

develop a more precise definition. We will elaborate on the importance of this

field.

2. The telephone network is the most familiar and ubiquitous communication

network. It is designed for voice transmission. An office computer network is a

communication network used by organizations to connect personal computers and

workstations so they may share programs and data and to link those computers to

printers and, possibly, to some o ther peripherals., file servers that provide mass storage or plotters). Computer networks also are used in manufacturing plants to connect machine tools, robots, and sensors. The Internet is a network of computer networks that covers most of the world and allows millions of users to exchange

messages and computer files and some limited video and audio signals.

all these systems are communication networks, they are quite different in the information that they transmit and in the way they are used. Nevertheless, they

operate on similar principles. The unifying characteristics of all networks help us develop a definition of communication networks that describes the arrangements of hardware and software that we study in this text. Each system described is

designed to exchange information, which may be voice, sounds, graphics, pictures, video, text, or data, among users. Most often the users are humans, but they also can be computer programs or devices. Before the information is transmitted, it

is converted into bits(zeros or ones). Then the bits are sent to a receiver as

electrical or optical signals (electromagnetic waves, to be more precise). Finally, the information is reconstructed from the received bits. This transmission method, called digital transmission, reduced the transmission errors.

SECTION 2 READING COMPREHENSION(40 points)

IV. Directions: Skim Passage 2 and read the statements given right after the passage and judge whether they are True or False. Write the corresponding answer you

choose on your ANSWER SHEET.(10 points, 1 point for each)

Passage 2

feels pain sometimes: the pain in the head that comes after eating ice cream

or drinking cold water; the sudden muscular pain; the “stitch” that attacks long-distance runners or others whose activities have put great demands on the

oxygen supply of the body. These transient pains are not cause for alarm; they

usually disappear quickly, return rarely and signify very little.

contrast are the unusual, chronic, or exceptionally severe pains that require attention from a doctor, who can determine whether or not they require special

care. Angina pectoris(pain of the chest) is a heart pain that lasts from two or

three minutes to ten or fifteen. Identification is extremely important, because

special drugs are needed for relief and the doctor’s understanding and a dvice may prevent recurrence of the condition.

a doctor can recognize what are called referred pains. These originate at one point, but are felt at another to which they have been carried by the nerves. A

person with continuous pain becomes irritated, tired easily, has difficulty in

sleeping, loses appetite, and may even become the victim of what has been called

an anxiety state or nervous breakdown. Few diseases develop without pain at some

state, and many involve so characteristic a pain as to make diagnosis certain.

Whenever a pain is so severe, so prolonged, and so unusual as to arouse alarm,

a doctor should be consulted.

pains should usually be investigated.

chronic pains require special care.

pectoris would probably be classified as unusual.

and referred pains are alike in that both last for a long time.

can be useful as a signal of the presence of disease.

pains are different from referred pains.

can serve as an aid in the diagnosis of disease.

person with continuous pains is usually good-tempered.

pains are felt some distance from their source.

chronic pains can be identified and treated.

V. Directions: Read Passages 3 and 4 and choose the correct answer. Write the

corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET.(20 points, 1 point for

each)

Passage 3

year a great number of babies and young children die or are injured in fires. One out of every five fires is caused by careless smoking or by children playing

with matches and lighters. Don’t tempt children by leaving matches or lighters

around a room.

leave a child alone in a house. In just a few seconds they could start a fire. Or a fire could start and trap them. A child will panic in a fire and will not

know what to do. Unless a parent is around to help, a child may try to hide under

a bed or in a closet. Home f ire drills are a sound idea. The best way to stop panic in case of fire is to know what to do before a fire breaks out.

first thought in a fire should always be escape. Far too many people become

victims because they do not know the killing power and speed of fire. If a fire

is very small and has just started, you can put it out yourself. Do this if you

have the proper tools on hand. In any case always send the children outside first. Smoke, not fire, is the real killer in a blaze. According to studies, as many as

eight out of ten deaths in fires are due to inhaling fumes long before the flames

ever came near the person.

are another hazard to tots. Fireplaces, space heaters, floor furnaces, and

radiators have all caused horrible burns to babies. Since you cannot watch your

child all the time, you must screen fireplaces. Put guards around heaters and

radiators.

people use a vaporizer or portable heater in a child’s room. If you do, be

sure you place it out of reach. Be sure, too, that it is not placed too close to

blankets or bedclothes.

care in the kitchen. It is not safe to let an infant crawl or a small child

walk around the kitchen while you are preparing meals. There is danger of your

tripping and spilling something hot on the child. There is even danger of a child pulling in a hot pot off the stove on to herself. Also, do not use tablecloths

that hang over the table edge. Children can easily pull the cloth and whatever

is on the table down. Be aware of these dangers and protect your child.

41. The best title of the passage can be ________.

A. Better Safe Than Sorry

B. How to Protect Children

C. Escape From Fire

D. Be Careful in the Kitchen

42. Careless smoking or children playing with matches and lighters causes ______.

A. most deaths of children

B. one out of five fires

C. eight out of ten deaths in fires

D. five out of ten fires

43. A child will probably do the following in a fire EXCEPT ______.

A. panicking

B. not knowing what to do

C. trying to hide under a bed or in a closet

D. calling for help

44. In paragraph 2, the word “sound” is closest in meaning to ________.

A. healthy

B. safe

C. sensible

D. thorough

45. The best way to stop panic in the case of fire is to ________.

A. call a neighbor

B. be prepared

C. call a policeman

D. run away

46. When caught in a fire, a person’s first thought should always be ________.

A. panic

B. prevention

C. escape

D. putting out the fire

47. The real killer in a fire is _________.

A. smoke

B. flames

C. fuel

D. blaze

48. Burns can be caused by _______.

A. harmful toys

B. bedclothes

C. blankets

D. space heaters

49. Which statement is NOT mentioned in the passage

A. Never leave a young child alone at home.

B. Burns can be very dangerous to children.

C. Place heaters out of the reach of children.

D. Do not work in a kitchen when a child is in it.

50. From the passage, we can infer that _______.

A. adults know how to handle fires

B. many children start fires in a house

C. some fire fighters are not well trained

D. adults are always very careful about fire.

Passage 4

1. When Jules Verne wrote Journey to the Center of the Earth in 1864, there were many conflicting theories about the nature of the earth’s interior. Some geologists though that it contained a highly compressed ball of incandescent gas, while others suspected that it consisted of separate graphite shells, each made

of a different material. Today well over a century later, there is still little

direct evidence of what lies beneath our feet. Most of our knowledge of the earth’s interior comes not from mines or bore holes, but from the study of seismic waves

—powerful pulses of energy released by earthquakes.

2. The way that seismic waves travel shows that the earth’s interior is far

from uniform. The continents and the seabed are formed by the crust—a thin sphere of relatively light, solid rock. Beneath the crust lies the mantle, a very different layer that extends approximately halfway to the earth’s center. There the rock is the subject of a battle between increasing heat and growing pressure.

3. In its high levels, the mantle is relatively cool; at greater depths, high temperatures make the rock behave more like a liquid than a solid. Deeper still,

the pressure is even more intense, preventing the rock from melting in spite of

a higher temperature.

4. Beyond a depth of around 2,900 kilometers, a great change takes place and

the mantle gives way to the core. Some s eismic waves cannot pass through the core and others are bent by it.From this and other evidence, geologists conclude that the outer core is probably liquid, with a solid center. It is almost certainly

made of iron, mixed with smaller amount of other elements such as nickel.

5. The conditions in the earth’s core make it a far more alien world than space. Its solid iron heart is subjected to unimaginable pressure and has a

temperature of about 9,000° F. Although scientists can speculate about its nature, neither humans nor machines will ever be able to visit it.

51. The word “conflicting” in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ________.

A. controlling

B. outdated

C. important

D. opposing

52. The geologists _________ about the nature of the earth’s interior.

A. agree with each other

B. disagree with each other

C. are sure

D. have found enough evidence

53. Seismic waves are _________ .

A. pulses of energy

B. sound waves

C. electromagnetic waves

D. radio waves

54. The way that seismic waves travel shows that ________.

A. the interior of the earth is rock

B. the interior of the earth is divided into different layers

C. the interior of the earth is metal

D. the crust and the mantle are composed of exactly the same substance

55. The word “there” at the end of Paragraph 2 refers to the ________.

A. seabed

B. crust

C. mantle

D. earth’s center

56. What is true about the mantle

A. It is similar to the crust.

B. It is a very thin layer of the earth.

C. It is cooler as it goes deeper.

D. It is a completely different layer from the crust.

57. The phrase “gives way to” in Paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to ________.

A. runs along

B. rubs against

C. turns into

D. floats on

58. The word “it” in Paragraph 4 refers to the _________.

A. mantle

B. core

C. change

D. depth

59. The inner core of the earth is NOT __________.

A. liquid

B. made of iron

C. solid

D. mixed with nickel

60. Why does the author state that the earth’s core is “more alien” than space

A. Because government funds are not interested in the characteristics of the

earth’s core.

B. Because scientists are not interested in the characteristics of the ea rth’s

core.

C. Because the pressure and high temperature there prevent scientists from doing

research.

D. Because the earth’s core is made of elements that are dangerous to humans.

Ⅵ. Directions: Passage 5 is taken from the TEXTBOOK. Read the passage carefully

and choose the best answer. Write the corresponding letter of the answer on your ANSWER SHEET. (10 points, 1 points for each)

Passage 5

1. In spite of the difficulties of predicting future trends in world trade,

we c an specify factors that will be important. Some of these are: population growth; possible scarcity of commodities, the food and energy situation, relations with

the Third World (developing nations), pressures to preserve the environment, and international cooperation on political, social, economic, and monetary problems.

2. If population growth continues at its present pace, the future balance

between food demand and supply may become dependent on new dietary patterns.

Reduced consumption of meat, increased use of new high protein food made from

soybeans, and development of ocean resources for food are some alternatives that

must be considered.

3. As the population grows, prices of commodities will fluctuate. As countries endeavor to increase yields on existing croplands through intensified use of water, energy, and fertilizers, the cost of commodities will rise.

4. Growth of trade will depend greatly on availability of energy sources. There may still be a trillion barrels of recoverable oil in the Middle East. But the

oil crisis of 1974 has led to renewed interest in coal and to a search for

alternative sources of energy. Solar, geothermal, and nuclear energy will play

a large role in the years to come.

5. Solar energy is available in various forms. Buildings can be heated and

cooled by direct use of solar radiation, crops and trees, which are the most

efficient converters of sunlight into energy, can be grown for their energy

potential, wastes can be burned as fuel, sunlight can be converted into DC (direct current) electricity, electric power can be derived from the sun-warmed surface

waters of the ocean (ocean thermal power), lastly, solar radiation can be converted

to heat that will drive electric power generators (solar thermal power). Serious problems still remain as to transportation and storage of solar energy.

6. Geothermal energy is the energy contained within the earth. Heat is abundantly available deep in the earth’s core and is constantly being produced. However, this heat is usually located at too deep a level for commercial exploitation. Sometimes heat comes to the surface in the form of lava and geysers. In short, very little is know on the use of geothermal energy, and it has barely

been exploited.

7. Nuclear energy is produced in nuclear power plants. At these plants atoms of uranium are split, thus releasing masses of energy. Another source of energy

under development is the nuclear fusion of certain atoms of hydrogen. This could

eventually replace natural gas as a source of energy.

8. In future trade the key development to watch is the relationship between

the industrialized and the developing nations. Third World countries export their mineral deposits and tropical agricultural products, which bring them desired

foreign exchange. Tourism has also been greatly responsible for the rapid development of some developing nations. Many Third World nations with high unemployment and low wages have seen an emigration of workers to the developed

nations. Western Europe has received millions of such workers from Mediterranean countries.

9. The developing nations profit when these workers bring their savings and

their acquired technical skills back home. Many developing nations benefit when

Western nations establish manufacturing in their countries to take advantage of

cheap labor.

10. As economies mature, economic growth rates tend to level off. The rate

of population growth is leveling off today in Western nations. This leveling-off

eventually leads to static non-growth markets. A point of saturation sets in—technology and innovation have seemed to achieve the impossible, but then how much further can it go Herman Kahn, in his book The Next 200 Years, says that a shift in priorities will have to occur for industrialized nations. No longer is

the creation of money and jobs essential, it is rather the improvement of the

quality of life that must be our concern. Today pollution is of major concern for industrialized nations. Environmentalists are worried about the relationship

between industrial objectives and preserving the environment. In developing nations, however, the problem of pollution is ignored for the sake of development.

11. The Western World will eventually move to a period of relatively low

economic growth, coupled with a high rate of unemployment. A so-called welfare

society will emerge. The unemployed in the new welfare society will be taken care of by the employed through generous contributions to the social welfare system.

12. Political questions remain as to the world’s future. We c an only speculate

as to whether organized markets such as the Common Market and COMECON could

eventually merge. In the present political climate, this would seem impossible,

although some cooperation agreements are already in effect. Obviously a merger

between the Western and Eastern European markets would greatly enhance world trade.

13. International monetary cooperation will have a significant impact on

future trade. If the IMF countries are not able to agree upon a new international monetary order in the years to come, international trade may become too risky for some companies to get involved in . If the IMF is unable to create sufficient

international liquidity reserves in the future, there may not be enough liquidity

to sustain growth in trade.

14. However, growing international consultation and cooperation in economic, monetary, and political matters will certainly contribute to the flourishing of

world trade for years to come.

61. If population growth continues at its present pace, how can people keep the

balance between food demand and supply

A. People should increase the consumption of meat.

B. People should increase the consumption of low protein food.

C. People should turn to new dietary patterns.

D. People should produce more crops.

62. Trade growth will depend greatly on ___________.

A. energy sources

B. dietary patterns

C. increased consumption of soybeans

D. increased yields on existing croplands

63. The oil crisis of 1974 caused ___________.

A. countries to depend more on oil

B. countries to find other energy sources to replace oil

C. coal and nuclear energy to become less popular

D. countries to become more and more indifferent to coal

64. The problem with solar energy is that _________.

A. sunlight cannot be used directly for heating buildings

B. sunlight cannot be used to drive electric power generators

C. it is difficult to transport and store solar energy

D. it is difficult to convert sunlight into DC electricity

65. Geothermal energy has not been exploited because ____________.

A. it is located too deep in earth’s core f or commercial use

B. it is not sufficient enough

C. little is known about exploratory technology

D. it often comes to the surface in the form of lava and geysers

66. Which of the following is NOT true according to paragraph 8

A. Third World countries export their mineral deposits so as to get foreign

exchange.

B. Workers in Third World countries emigrate to developed countries.

C. Tourism will contribute much to the development of Third World countries.

D. Some d eveloping countries will absorb large numbers of foreign workers to work

in their countries.

67. Industrial nations show great concern for ____________.

A. creation of new jobs

B. pollution and environmental preservation

C. high unemployment and low wages

D. the decreasing economic growth rate

68. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 10

A. Western nations are facing economic saturation.

B. Developing countries pay much attention to the problem of pollution.

C. As economies mature, economic growth rates tend to speed up.

D. A welfare society will emerge in developing nations.

69. In a welfare society ______________.

A. people don’t need to work but can enjoy the welfare provided by their countries

B. more people will be laid off with the rapid growth of the economy

C. rate of unemployment is very low due to low economic growth

D. people who are out of work will be taken care of economically by their countries

70. We can conclude from Paragraphs 12,13 and 14 that _________.

A. the Common Market and COMECON would eventually merge

B. the future of the international trade will depend on international consultation

and cooperation

C. there would be monetary cooperation between Western and Eastern European

countries

D. future international liquidity reserves would influence growth in trade

SECTION 3 QUESTIONS AND TRANSLATION (30 points)

Ⅶ. Directions: The following questions are closely related to Passage 5. Write

a brief answer (one to three complete sentences) to each of the questions on your ANSWER SHEET. Pay attention to the words, grammar and sentence structure in your answers. (15 points, 3 points for each)

71. What energies will play a large role in the future

72. Which energy could eventually replace natural gas as a source of energy

What energy is it classified as

73. Why is it the key point in future trade to develop the relationship between

the industrialized and the developing nations

74. Herman Kahn says in his book The Next 200 Years that a shift will occur for industrialized nations. What is the shift

75. What will happen if the IMF countries are not able to agree upon a new international monetary order in the future

Ⅷ.Directions: Translate the following sentences (taken from passage 5) in to

Chinese and write the Chinese version in the corresponding space on your ANSWER

SHEET. (15 points, 3 points for each)

76. Reduced consumption of meat, increased used of new high protein food made f rom soybeans, and development of ocean resources for food are some alternatives that

must be considered.

77. As countries endeavor to increase yields on existing croplands through intensified use of water, energy, and fertilizers, the cost of commodities will

rise.

78. Many Third World nations with high unemployment and low wages have seen an

emigration of workers to the developed nations.

79. A point of saturation sets in—technology and innovation have seemed to achieve the impossible, but then how much further can it go

80. In the present political climate, this would seem impossible, although some

cooperation agreements are already in effect.