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英语期末复习资料

一旦移居国外,人们会感到焦虑不安,甚至无法处理日常事务。这归咎于他们丧失了原来所熟悉的生活环境。那么我们怎样做才能改变多年形成的生活习惯和模式呢?首先,我们对不同于自己文化背景的人要宽容些。为了克服由于文化冲击而导致的挫折感,我们必须尽快适应新的环境,与工作伙伴和睦相处。此外,我们切忌把一个人等同于他所代表的民族,切忌因为讨厌这个人进而讨厌他的文化。其实提倡保护(preserve)本土文化并不是要抵制异国文化。

Once transplanted abroad, people will feel anxious and even lose the capacity to deal with daily routines. This problem is attributed to the disappearance of the surroundings we have been used to. Then, what should we do so as to change the life styles and patterns built up in us over so many years? First, we should be more tolerant towards people with cultural backgrounds different from ours. To get over frustrations caused by culture shock, we should try to adapt ourselves to the new environment and get along with our workmates harmoniously. Furthermore, we should never identify a person with the nationality he represents or proceed to hate the person’s culture only because we don’t like him. In fact, to preserve our national culture is not to resist foreign ones.

大家公认奥运会不仅仅是一次世界顶尖运动员的大聚会,也是全世界亿万观众的欢乐时光。奥运会成形与古希腊。当时古希腊各城市之间战火频起,但是一旦奥运会开始,战争即刻停止。在当今世界,奥运会依然象征和平。迄今为止,奥运会已经发展成最大的国际体育赛事,越来越多的运动员代表越来越多的国家参与奥运。虽然只有数十名,至多数百名运动员成为一届奥运会冠军,但是参与本身就是胜利。他们都该赢得喝彩,因为他们都得克服重重障碍才能参加这样的盛会。在每个项目中,奥运格言激励着每个运动员挑战人体极限。同时,他们遵守规则,尊重裁判。如此公平而卓越的比赛最能展现真正的运动家精神。

The Olympic Games are universally recognized not only as a spectacular gathering of top athletes, but also as a moment of rejoicing for billions of spectators. The Games took shape in ancient Greece, where wars were not infrequent between cities. But once the Games started, the wars were immediately brought to a halt. In the modern world the Olympic Games still symbolize peace. So far, the Olympics have developed into the biggest international sports event, with an increasing number of sportsmen competing on behalf of more and more nations. Though only dozens of, or at most hundreds of, athletes finally become champions in one Olympics, participation itself means triumph for all the athletes. They all deserve applause because they have overcome numerous barriers before they can finally take part in such a big gathering. The Olympic motto inspires every athlete in every event to challenge human physical limits. While doing so, they abide by the rules and pay due respect to the referees /judges. Such extraordinary and fair competition best brings out true sportsmanship.

在当今社会里,竞争是怎样与合作结合在一起的?首先,供不应求导致了竞争。同一个足球队中的球员为获得某个位置而竞争,这个球队与其他球队为获胜而竞争;在工作单位里,同事们为更高的职位而竞争;商场上,商家为争取更多的客户、更大的市场份额而成为竞争对手。但是与此同时,竞争与合作是密不可分的。球员必须相互有效地配合才可能使自己球队获得冠军,同事们也得合作才能完成共同承担的任务,商家们要通力合作才能说服商业管理机构部门给予最大的优惠。总之,个人和团队都同时受制于竞争与合作。这二者的共同作用也助长了社会的进一步发展,使我们能够享受一个更繁荣与和谐的世界。

In the modern society, how does competition work in combination with cooperation? Firstly, scarcity leads to competition. Players of the same football team compete for slots on the team, and this team competes against other teams for victory. In a work place, colleagues compete for higher positions. And also in business, firms become rivals for more consumers and a bigger market share. But meanwhile competition is inseparable from cooperation. Players have to cooperate efficiently with one another to win the championships for their team. Colleagues have to cooperate to accomplish their shared task. Firms try their best to cooperate to lobby the agencies of business administration for the greatest privileges. All in all, individuals as well as teams are subjected to both competition and cooperation. The two together nourish the social development so that we can enjoy a more prosperous and harmonious world.

How to Survive in a Competitive Society

Competition in present-day society is fierce and cruel. It exists in different lines of work. For example, different musicians compete for each seat in their orchestra, and different orchestras compete for the privilege of making recordings with prestigious studios. Footballers compete for positions within the same team, and they work together to compete against other teams for championships. In short, whatever we do, we may feel the pressure of competition.However, instead of deploring competition, we should see the interrelationship between competition and cooperation. Cooperation and competition exist side by side and they are both unavoidable in human society. For example, while competing with other factories, producers and distributors of the same factory must cooperate and make coordinated efforts to satisfy the needs of customers. Business rivals have to cooperate with one another when their common market is threatened. Therefore, competition alone will not bring us success in what we are doing.In the face of competition, we should keep acquiring new skills and updating our knowledge so as to enhance our competitive ability. At the same time,we should learn the techniques of cooperating with others in the most effective manner.

Should We Offer Seats to Elderly People on the Bus During Rush Hours?

I am amazed to read what a blogger says about offering bus seats to the elderly. He claims that "it's the young who need it more" because they go to work early in the morningand feel exhausted after a day's work. The blogger also argues that it is unfair to offer seats to the elderly since they already enjoy free rides, and suggests that during rush hours senior citizens be denied such treatment.I could never bring myself to agree with the blogger. Taking good care of the elderly is a universally accepted standard of conduct. In my opinion, offering seats to our elders is not just an indication of good manners; it is a moral issue. I always consider it my moral obligation to help others. Yes, you may feel comfortable for a while by remaining in your seat, but you will lose your character and moral values in the long run. Respecting the elderly is also our social convention. It is precisely out of our love and respect for the elderly that such special benefits as free rides are offered to them. No one can deprive senior citizens of their right to go out by bus at any time they like,and what's more, we should make sure they get special care when the bus is fully packed with passengers. Caring for the elderly and being taken care of can be a mutually satisfying experience for everyone involved. It is through performing such small acts as offering seats to the needy that we learn to contribute to the building of a harmonious society.

My favorite Sports Team: the Chinese Women's Volleyball Team

In quite a few sports, Chinese women athletes outshine men athletes. As a girl, I always feel proud of our women table tennis players, badminton players, women divers and gymnasts. But my greatest enthusiasm always goes to the Chinese Women's V olleyball Team, who, though it has undergone some ups and downs, always presents a positive, inspiring image to the public.I've never missed any major TV shows involving the Chinese women's team. I can't help getting excited watching the girls shine in court, with their amazing spikes and blocks, and their never-ceasing courage and faith in winning the match. There are times when they lose the game, sometimes with embarrassing result like 0:3; there are years when they suffer a lot of injuries and new players do not match up to the veterans, yet, one must admit that the Chinese girls have been practising very hard all the way. Recent years has witnessed a difficult period for the team when Russian, American, Cuban, and Brazilian teams are rising in ranking and winning championships, but I still have faith in our team and give them my support. I wish them good luck in the coming Olympics.

Benefits from Hosting the Olympic Games

July of 2001 witnessed a wave of national excitement in our land: Beijing had won the bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. It symbolized the strength of our country and roused our national pride.Since then a lot of changes have taken place in Beijing. Citizens of Beijing are now enjoying better transportation facilities, and the physical environment has improved significantly. With the construction of athletic venues, municipal infrastructure and other relevant facilities, new job opportunities have been created. A boom in Olympic-related businesses and industries has taken place not only in Beijing but also elsewhere.Hosting the Olympic Games is also a mega cultural event. It is a good opportunity to increase the international profile of the host city. Now more and more people are drawn to Beijing, and there has appeared a new boom in tourism. Preparations for the 2008 Olympic Games have given rise to numerous cultural and educational programs focusing on the citizens' commitment and dedication to this international event. Such programs have not only generated a widespread interest in sports but have also promoted the citizens' social, cultural and ethical visions. We must try our best to capitalize on this opportunity as fully as we can.

My Views on Cultural Differences

In my opinion, cultural differences have more advantages than disadvantages. First of all, it is cultural differences that make our world so colorful. If you go to a foreign country, you will be impressed not only by its physical environment but also by its cultural environment — its foods, clothes, customs, social practices, etc. Differences between cultures have always been a source of joy and inspiration.Secondly, differences in culture enrich human civilization. Different cultures compete with as well as learn from each other. Roman culture was modeled on Greek culture, which had once borrowed a lot from Egyptian culture. American culture is also a blend of many different cultures. Thirdly, differences in culture give each culture its unique identity. A culture is usually seen in relation to other cultures. Chinese culture distinguishes itself from others by its peculiar concepts and things that can hardly be found elsewhere.Of course, cultural differences may cause conflicts and misunderstandings. But interdependence, common interests and mutual goals of different nations always outweigh differences in culture. Nations with different cultures should learn from each other and live peacefully together. To this end, we should be more tolerant to other cultures while preserving, protecting and developing our own.

My Views on the Influence of Western Culture

On weekends, I gather with my friends at MacDonald's or KFC. We eat fried chicken, drink Coco-cola and talk about the latest release of Hollywood movies. We read foreign novels, listen to Western music and watch NBA. We admire Bill Gates, George Michael and Princess Diana. We dress ourselves in the Western style and celebrate Christmas and Valentine's Day. Our way of life has thus changed. Indeed, the influence of Western culture is strongly felt in our everyday life.This influence in turn prepares us well to blend into the modern world and participate in the world market competition. But we should not ignore its side effects. Our national culture may gradually lose its ground if our attention is focused only upon Western culture. In following the trend of globalization we should maintain our own cultural identity, cherish our cultural tradition and develop our own culture. What Mahatma Gandhi once said can best sum up my views on the influence of Western culture: "I do not want my house to be walled in on all sides and my windows to be stuffed. I want the cultures of all the lands to be blown about my house as freely as possible. But I refuse to be blown off my feet by any."

选词填空

1. More and more young adults are remaining single and (1)___J___. This is bringing about a violent change in the education of young people. More and more young girls are signing up for the classes (2)____N__ reserved only for boys. And, (3)___F___, a good number of boys are finding that classes in cooking and sewing are extremely useful to their own independence.

A growing (4)___E___ of college students are choosing to take the classes which are meaningful and useful rather than traditional. I find it encouraging that some women are pursuing training as mechanics and electricians. Within ten years or so, the number of women in the mechanical field may be nearly (5)____B__ to the number of men.

It is becoming more and more (6)___C___ that women are not "mechanically dumb". They just never got the encouragement to learn the basics of mechanics. It doesn't require a man's hand to turn a screw or tighten a bolt. The tools are designed for anyone's hand. I know several women who have rebuilt and (7)___L___ their own cars, and they are no brawnier than an average secretary.

Slowly, bit by bit, I am learning how the engine in my car works and what is required to keep it (8)__A____. It's dirty work and requires some determination, but I am gaining independence because of the notion that it is "man's work" and I won't have to take it to a mechanic who would be happy to (9)____H__ an "ignorant" woman.

Someday, perhaps, when women have been given the chance to allow their talents to blossom, we may find that lady mechanics will be (10)___D___ over males. Now won't that be a switch?

A.running

B. equal

C. Apparent

D. preferred

E. Number

F. conversely

G. rushing

H.over-charge

I. accuse

J. Independent

K. volume

L. Reasons

M. Purchased

N. previously

O. immediately 2. Internet use appears to cause a decline in psychological well-being. Even people who spent just a few hours a week on the Internet experienced more 1. C and loneliness than those who 2. Aon less frequently. And it wasn't that people who were already feeling bad spent more time on the Internet, but that using the Net 3 .E appeared to cause the bad feelings.

Researchers are puzzling over the results, which were completely 4 .G to their expectations. They expected that the Net would prove socially healthier than television, since the Net allows users to choose their information and to 5.D with others.

The fact that Internet use reduces time available for family and friends may 6. B for the drop in well-being, researchers hypothesized. Faceless, bodiless " 7. J" communication may be less psychologically satisfying than actual conversation, and the relationships formed through it may be shallower. Another possibility is that 8. M to the wider world via the Net makes users less satisfied with their lives.

"But it's important to remember this is not about the 9. K, perhaps; it's about how it is said," says psychologist Christine Riley of Intel, one of the study's sponsors. "It really points to the need for considering social10. H in terms of how you design applications and services for technology."

A. logged

B. account

C. depression

D. communicate

E. actually

F. likely

G. contrary

H.factors

I.travel

J. virtual

K. technology L.reasons M.exposure N. writ O. stale

3. New Orleans, Louisiana, was established as part of the French Empire in 1718. Its _1._J on the east bank of the Mississippi River gave it control of the American hinterland and it became strategically important to many nations. It was transferred from France to Spain, 2. E to France, and finally sold by Napoleon to the United States in 1803. The city was the site of a famous battle _3. N in 1815 between the British, who hoped to control it, and the Americans under General Andrew Jackson. The riverbed of the Mississippi is constantly silting and the river is now 4 .B higher than the city. Levees hold back the river and giant 5 .L are used to move water from the city into the river.

Although New Orleans has been a part of the United States for almost two centuries, its population takes great pride in its French 6. G. Louisiana still retains parts of the Code Napoleon which, for many years, was its only law.

New Orleans is a carefree city and it 7 .O its hot, spicy Creole seafood and its native Dixieland Jazz. The Jackson Square neighborhood maintains its French 8 .D homes and in other sections are pre-Civil War mansions. Visitors are 9.I to find that behind this interesting facade of yesteryear, is a busy industrial and port city. Grain and coal come from the Midwest and foreign cargoes are 10. C here. New Orleans is no longer a sleepy Southern town—but ifs still fun to visit.

A.regulation

B. actually

C. Unloaded

D. Colonial

E. returned

F. Likes G . heritage H. agricultural I. surprised J. location K. interested L. pumps M. Doubtfully N. Fought O. boasts

4. Wise buying is a positive way in which you can make your money go further. The way you go about purchasing an article or a service can actually 1.Byou money or can add to the cost. Take the 2.G example of a hairdryer. If you are buying a hairdryer, you might think that you are making the 3.C buy if you choose one whose look you like and which is also the cheapest 4.I price. But when you get it home you may find that it takes twice as long as a more expensive

5.K to dry your hair. The cost of the electricity plus the cost of your time could well make your hairdryer the most expensive one of all.

So what principles should you 6.N when you go out shopping? If you keep your home, your car or any valuable 7.A in excellent condition, you'll be saving money in the long run. Before you buy a new 8.D , talk to someone who owns one .If you can, use it or borrow it to check it suits your particular purpose. Before you buy an expensive 9.L , or a service, do check the price and what is on offer. If possible, choose 10.F three items or three estimates.

A. possession

B.save

C. best

D. appliance

E. material

F. from G . simple H.with I.in J.element K.model L.item M.easy N.adopt O.reasonable

5. Just like children, deer often cross British roads to get to the other side. But the cost is the deer ’s life. At night, __1 .E___cars hit and kill the animals. Now foresters are using natural animal 2 .D to prevent dangerous crossings.

In England,the British Forestry Commission has 3.B thousands of glowing red “wolf eyes ” along woodland roads. The eyes are actually reflectors, 4.C bars like the red reflectors on your bike. The ten-centimeter long bars are fixed on top of posts, with only these signs directed towards the woods rather than the roads.

When cars speed by, light rays from car headlights reflect off the reflectors ’ shining surface and 5.I into the woods. Deer are instantly 6.A by the wolf eyes---even though wolves haven ’t 7.J deer in Britain or even lived there for a hundred years!

Scientists think the glowing light 8.K the “eye shine ” of nightly beasts. (You ’ve probably seen eye shine on cats. Mirror-like cells in the eyes 9.N some light that hits them. ) The deer must not have “forgotten ” that a wolf can run up to 72 km per hour in 10 .M pursuit, or can sniff deer out from 2.4 km away.

All of us ought to be able to brace ourselves for the predictable

A.scared

B. installed

C. plastic

D.instincts

E.speeding

F.display G .fancy H. attracts I. flash J. hunted

K.imitates L. harmony M.hot N. reflect O.instruments

6. All of us ought to be able to brace ourselves for the predictable challenges and set backs that crop up in our everyday life. If we (1) F that life won't be perfect, we will be able to avoid that (2) N to quit. But even if you are strong enough to persist the obstacle course of life and work, sometimes you will encounter an adverse event that will (3) C knock you on your back.

A quick look at the history will tell you that history is full of example of men and women who (4) M greatness despite facing hurdles. Moses was a stutterer, yet he was (5)

B on to be the voice of God and led the ancient Hebrews to the Graceland. Abraham Lincoln overcame a difficult childhood, depression, the death of two sons, and (6) J ridicule during the Civil War to become our greatest president ever. Hellen Keller made an (7) A on the world despite being deaf, dumb, and blind from an early age.

There are (8) H examples. These were people who not only looked adversity in the face but learned (9) I lessons about overcoming difficult circumstances and were able to move ahead. Bearing all these examples in our mind, we can come to terms with any possible difficulties and (10)D on to embrace the final victories.

A.impact

B.called

C. completely

D. Hold

E.dropped

F. expect

G. pulse

H.endless

I.valuable

J. Constantble

K. Accurate

L. Achieved

M. Impulse

N. Miracle

O.relatively 7. The popular notion that older people need less sleep than younger adults is a myth, scientists said yesterday.

While elderly people 1.N to sleep for fewer hours than they did when they were younger, this has a(n] 2. L effect on their brain's performance and they would benefit from getting more, according to research.

Sean Drummond, a psychiatrist (心理医生] at the University of California, San Diego, said that older people are more likely to suffer from broken sleep, while younger people are better at sleeping 3 .H straight through the night.

More sleep in old age, however, is 4 .B with better health, and most older people would feel better and more 5. A if they slept for longer periods, he said.

"The ability to sleep in one chunk (整块时间] overnight goes down as we age but the amount of sleep we need to 6. J well does not change," Dr Drummond told the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Diego.

"It's 7. F a myth that older people need less sleep. The more healthy an older adult is, the more they sleep like they did when they were 8 .O . Our data suggests that older adults would benefit from 9 .E to get as much sleep as they did in their 30s. That's 10. G from person to person, but the amount of sleep we had at 35 is probably the same amount we need at 75."

A.alert

B. associated

C.attracting

D. cling

E. continuing

F.definitely

G.different

H.efficiently

I. formally

J. function

K.mixed

L. negative

M. sufficient

N. tend

O. younger

8. What determines the kind of person you are? What factors make you more or less bold, intelligent, or able to read a map? All of these are influenced by the interaction of your genes and the environment in which you were __11_.M_. The study of how genes and environment interact to influence __12._L_ activity is known as behavioral genetics. Behavioral genetics has made important __13._E_ to the biological revolution, providing information about the extent to which biology influences mind, brain and behavior.

Any research that suggests that __14._A_ to perform certain behaviors are based in biology is controversial. Who wants to be told that there are limitations to what you can __15_.B_ based on something that is beyond your control, such as your genes? It is easy to accept that genes control physical characteristics such as sex, race and eye color. But can genes also determine whether people will get divorced, how __16._N_ they are, or what career they are likely to choose? A concern of psychological scientists is the __17._I_ to which all of these characteristics are influenced by nature and nurture(养育), by genetic makeup and the environment. Increasingly, science __18._J_ that genes lay the groundwork for many human traits. From this perspective, people are born __19_.G_ like undeveloped photographs: The image is already captured, but the way it _20._H_ appears can vary based on the development process. However, the basic picture is there from the beginning.

A. Abilities

B. Achieve

C. Appeal

D. Complaints

E. contributions

F. Displayed

G. Essentially

H. Eventually

I. Extent

J. indicates

K. Proceeds L. Psychological M.Raised N. Smart O. standard

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