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功能翻译理论Skopos theory

方梦之主编:《译学词典》,上海外语教育出版社,第29页

功能翻译理论functionalist translation theory

又称“功能目的论”(Skopos theory)。1971年,德国的莱斯(K. Reiss)首先提出“把翻译行为所要达到的特殊目的”作为翻译评价的新模式。1984年她在与费米尔(H. J. Vermeer)合写的General Foundation of Translation Theory一书中声称:译者在整个翻译过程中的参照系不应是“对等”翻译理论所注重的原文及其功能,而应是译文在译语文化环境中所预期达到的一种或若钟交际功能。20世纪90年代初,德国学者克利斯蒂安·诺德(Christiane Nord)进一步拓展了译文功能理论。她强调译文与原文的联系,但这种联系的质量与数量由译文的预期功能确定。这就是说,根据译文语境,原文中的哪些内容或成分可以保留,哪些需调整或改写,该由译文的预期功能确定。

功能目的理论的两项基本原则是:1. 翻译各方面的交互作用受翻译目的所决定;2. 目的随接受对象的不同而变化。按照这两项原则,译者可以为了达到目的而采用任何他自己认为适当的翻译策略。换句话说,目的决定方式(The end justifies the means)。

作为受文化制约的语言符号,原文语篇和译文语篇受到各自交际环境的影响,译文功能与原文功能可相似或保持一致,也可能完全不同。根据不同的语境因素和预期功能,选择最佳的处理方法,这是功能翻译理论比以对等为基础的翻译理论或极端功能主义的翻译理论更为优越之处。翻译功能理论指导下的翻译方法表现出较大的灵活性,较高的科学性和易操作性。Toury 把“功能目的论”看作是“译文文本中心论”的翻版。

Skopos theory (plural Skopos theories)

1.(translation studies) The idea that translating and interpreting should primarily

take into account the function of both the source and target text.

o1995, Paul Kussmaul, Training The Translator, John Benjamins

Publishing Co, p. 149:

The functional approach has a great affinity with Skopos theory. The function of a translation is dependent on the knowledge, expectations, values and

norms of the target readers, who are again influenced by the situation they are

in and by the culture. These factors determine whether the function of the

source text or passages in the source text can be preserved or have to be

modified or even changed.

Introduction to the Skopos Theory

The Skopos theory is an approach to translation which was put forward by Hans Vemeer and developed in Germany in the late 1970s and which oriented a more functionally and socioculturally concept of translation. Translation is considered not as a process of translation, but as a specific form of human action. In our mind, transla tion has a purpose, and the word “Skopos” was from Greek. It’s used as the technical term for the purpose of the translation.

翻译目的论,"skopos"是希腊语“目的”的意思。其核心概念是翻译过程的最主要因素是整体翻译行为的目的。

1.Introduction to the Skopos Theory

The Skopos theory is an approach to translation which was put forward by Hans Vemeer and developed in Germany in the late 1970s and which oriented a more functionally and socioculturally concept of translation. Translation is considered not as a process of translation, but as a specific form of human action. In our mind, translation has a purpose, and the word “Skopos” was from Greek. It’s used as the technical term for the purpose of the translation. In the frame work of this theory, one of the most important factors determining the purpose of a translation is the address, who is the intended receiver or audience of the target text with their world language. Every translation is directed at an intended audience. The theory focuses above all on the purpose of the translation, which determines the translation methods and strategies that are to be employed in order to produce a functionally adequate result. Vermeer regards it as an “offer of information” that is partly or wholly turned into an “offer of information” for the target audience. From t his view, the status of the source is clearly much lower in Skopos theory than the equivalence theory.

Ⅰ.Introduction of the Skopos Theory

Skopos theory is the nucleus of German Functional School. The main idea of Skopos theory is that translators should hold the thought from the perspective of the target readers during the process of translation. Therefore, translators should bear in mind what the function of translation text is, what the target readers' demand is and even what communicative situation is. Consequently, the choice of translation strategies is decided by the purpose of the translation text,in order to achieve a better function text.

There are three main rules which are skopos rule, coherence rule and fidelity rule.

1.Skopos Rule

Skopos is a Greek word for"aim"or"purpose". "The top-ranking rule for any translation is thus the'skopos rule',which means that a translation action is determined by its skopos;that is,'the end justifies the means'"by Reiss and Vermeer.

Vermeer also stresses on many occasions that the skopos rule is a general rule,and translation strategies and methods are determined by the purpose and the intended function of the target text.

2.Coherence Rule

The coherence rule states that the target text"must be interpretable as coherent with the target text receiver's situation".In other words,the target text must be translated in such a way that it is coherent for the target text receivers,given their circumstances and knowledge.

In terms of coherence rule,the source text is no longer of most authority but only part of the translation beliefe.It is only an offer of information for the translator,who in turn picks out what he considers to be meaningful in the receiver's situation.

2.Fidelity Rule

Translation is a preceding offer of information. It is expected to bear some relationship with the corresponding source text.Vermeer calls this relationship "intertextual coherence" or "fidelity". This is postulated as a further principle, referred to as the "fidelity rule" by Reiss and Vermeer in 1984.The fidelity rule merely states that there must be coherence between the translated version and the source text

4.The Relationship among the Rules

Fidelity rule is considered subordinate to coherence rule,and both are subordinate to the skopos rule.If the skopos requires a change of function,the criterion will no longer be fidelity to the source text but adequacy or appropriateness with regard to the skopos.And if the skopos demands intra-textual incoherence,the standard of coherence rule is no longer vivid.

Skopos theory

Skopos theory is an approach to translation which was developed in Germany in the late 1970s (Vermeer 1978), and which reflects a general shift from predominantly LINGUISTIC and rather formal translation theories to a more functionally and socioculturally oriented concept of translation. (cf. ACTION (THEORY OF TRANSLATORIAL ACTION); COMMUNICATIVE/FUNCTIONAL APPROACHES). This shift drew inspiration from communication theory, action theory, text linguistics and text theory, as well as from movements in literary studies towards reception theories (see for example Iser 1978). Apart from Hans Vermeer, the founder of skopos theory, other scholars working in the paradigm include Margret Ammann (1989/1990), Hans Hönig and Paul Kussmaul (1982), Sigrid Kupsch-Losereit (1986), Christiane Nord (1988) and Heidrun Witte (1987a); see also articles in the journal TEXTconTEXT, published since 1986 by Groos in Heidelberg.

Skopos theory takes seriously factors which have always been stressed in action theory, and which were brought into sharp relief with the growing need in the latter half of the twentieth century for the translation of non-literary text types. In the translation of scientific and academic papers, instructions for use, tourist guides, contracts, etc., the contextual factors surrounding the translation cannot be ignored. These factors include the culture of the intended readers of the target text and of the client who has commissioned it, and, in particular, the function which the text is to perform in that culture for those readers. Skopos theory is directly oriented towards this function.

Translation is viewed not as a process of transcoding, but as a specific form of human action. Like any other human action, translation has a purpose, and the word skopos, derived from Greek, is used as the technical term for the purpose of a translation. Skopos must be defined before translation can begin; in highlighting skopos, the theory adopts a prospective attitude to translation, as opposed to the retrospective attitude adopted in theories which focus on prescriptions derived from the source text.

In addition to its purpose, any action has an outcome. The outcome of translational action is a translatum (Vermeer 1979:174; translat in Reiss and Vermeer 1984/1991:2), a particular variety of target text.

Vermeer’s skopos theory

Vermeer (1978:100) postulates that as a general rule it must be the intended purpose of the target text that determines translation methods and strategies. From this postulate, he derives the skopos rule: Human action (and its subcategory: translation) is determined by its purpose (skopos), and therefore it is a function of its purpose. The rule is formalized using the formula: IA(Trl) = f(Sk). The main point of this functional approach is the following: it is not the source text as such, or its effects on the source-text recipient, or the function assigned to it by the author, that determines the

translation process, as is postulated by EQUIV ALENCE-based translation theories, but the prospective function or skopos of the target text as determined by the initiator’s, i.e. client’s, needs. Consequently, the skopos is largely constrained by the target text user (reader/listener) and his/her situation and cultural background.

Two further general rules are the coherence rule and the fidelity rule. The coherence rule stipulates that the target text must be sufficiently coherent to allow the intended users to comprehend it, given their assumed background knowledge and situational circumstances, The starting point for a translation is a text as part of a world continuum, written in the source language. It has to be translated into a target language in such a way that it becomes part of a world continuum which can be interpreted by the recipients as coherent with their situation (Vermeer 1978:100).

The fidelity rule concerns intertextual coherence between translatum and source text, and stipulates merely that some relationship must remain between the two once the overriding principle of skopos and the rule of (intratextual) coherence have been satisfied.

The general translation theory of Reiss and Vermeer

In comb ining Vermeer’s general skopos theory of 1978 with the specific translation theory developed by Katharina Reiss, Reiss and Vermeer (1984/1991) arrive at a translation theory that is sufficiently general (allgemeine Translationstheorie), and sufficiently complex, to cover a multitude of individual cases. They abstract from phenomena that are specific to individual cultures and languages an account of general factors determining the translation process, to which special theories that concern individual problems or subfields can be linked consistently.

A text is viewed as an offer of information (Informationsangebot) made by a producer to a recipient. Translation is then characterized as offering information to members of one culture in their language (the target language and culture) about information originally offered in another language within another culture (the source language and culture). A translation is a secondary offer of information, imitating a primary offer of information. Or, to be more precise, the translator offers information about certain aspects of the source-text-in-situation, according to the target text skopos specified by the initiator (Reiss and Vermeer 1984/1991:76). Neither the selection made from the information offered in the source text, nor the specification of the skopos happens at random; rather, they are determined by the needs, expectations, etc. of the target-text receivers. Translation is by definition interlingual and intercultural, it involves both linguistic and cultural transfer; in other words, it is a culture-transcending process (Vermeer 1992:40).

Since skopos varies with text receivers, the skopos of the target text and of the source text may be different. In cases where the skopos is the same for the two texts, Reiss and Vermeer (1984/1991:45) speak of Funktionskonstanz (functional constancy), whereas cases in which the skopos differs between the two texts undergo Funktionsänderung (change of function). In cases of the latter type, the standard for the translation will not be intertextual coherence with the source text, but adequacy or appropriateness to the skopos, which also determines the selection and arrangement of content.

Although a translatum is not ipso facto a faithful imitation of the source text, fidelity to the source text is one possible or legitimate skopos. Skopos theory should not, therefore, be understood as promoting (extremely) free translation in all, or even a majority of cases.

Although the terms ‘skopos’, ‘purpose’ and ‘function’ are often used in terchangeably by Reiss and Vermeer (1984/1991), function is also used in a more specific sense which derives

mainly from Reiss. In this sense, it is linked to aspects of genre (Textsorte) and text type (Texttyp). The source text can be assigned to a text type and to a genre, and in making this assignment, the translator can decide on the hierarchy of postulates which has to be observed during target-text production (Reiss and Vermeer 1984/1991:196). Reiss and Vermeer’s text typology, based on Bühler (1934), includes the informative, the expressive and the operative text types, which derive from the descriptive, the expressive and the appellative functions of language, respectively. Such a typology is helpful mainly where functional constancy is required between source and target texts. However, both Vermeer (1989a) and Reiss (1988) have expressed reservations about the role of genre: the source text does not determine the genre of the target text, nor does the genre determine ipso facto the form of the target text, or, indeed, the skopos; rather, it is the skopos of the translation that determines the appropriate genre for the translatum, and the genre, being a consequence of the skopos, is secondary to it (Vermeer 1989a: 187).

Status of source text and target text

According to skopos theory, then, translation is the production of a functionally appropriate target text based on an existing source text, and the relationship between the two texts is specified according to the skopos of the translation. One practical consequence of this theory is a reconceptualization of the status of the source text. It is up to the translator as the expert to decide what role a source text is to play in the translation action. The decisive factor is the precisely specified skopos, and the source text is just one constituent of the commission given to the translator. The translator is required to act consciously in accordance with the skopos, and skopos must be decided separately in each specific case. It may be ADAPTATION to the target culture, but it may also be to acquaint the reader with the source culture. The translator should know what the point of a translation is—that it has some goal—but that any given goal is only one among many possible goals. The important point is that no source text has only one correct or preferable translation (Vermeer 1989a: 182), and that, consequently, every translation commission should explicitly or implicitly contain a statement of skopos. The skopos for the target text need not be identical with that attributed to the source text; but unless the skopos for the target text is specified, translation cannot, properly speaking, be carried out at all.

Criticism of skopos theory

Objections to skopos theory mainly concern the definition of translation and the relationship between source text and target text.

It has been argued that Reiss and Vermeer, in their attempt to establish a truly general and comprehensive translation theory, force totally disparate cases of text relations into a frame which they attempt to hold together by means of the notion of information offer (Schreitmüller 1994:105). But there should be a limit to what may legitimately be called translation as opposed to, for example, ADAPTATION. In translation proper (Koller 1990), the source text is the yardstick by which all translations must be measured, independently of the purpose for which they were produced.

In this context it is also argued that, even though a translation may indeed fulfil its intended skopos perfectly well, it may nevertheless be assessed as inadequate on other counts, particularly as far as lexical, syntactic, or stylistic decisions on the microlevel are concerned (a point made by Chesterman 1994:153, who otherwise acknowledges the important contributions of skopos theory). Such objections come mainly from linguistically oriented approaches to translation that focus on bottom-up aspects of text production and reception. For example, Newmark (1991b: 106)

criticizes the oversimplification that is inherent in functionalism, the emphasis on the message at the expense of richness of meaning and to the detriment of the authority of the source-language text.

However, proponents of skopos theory argue for a wide definition of translation (e.g. Reiss 1990). As soon as one asks for the purpose of a translation, strategies that are often listed under adaptation, for example reformulation, paraphrase and textual explication, will come in naturally as part of translation. And critics of microlevel decisions usually lift the texts out of their respective environments for comparative purposes, ignoring their functional aspects.

Reiss and Vermeer’s cultural approach has also been judged less applicable to literary translation, due to the special status of a literary work of art. Snell-Hornby (1990:84) argues that the situation and function of literary texts are more complex than those of non-literary texts, and that style is a highly important factor. Therefore, although skopos theory is by no means irrelevant to literary translation, a number of points need rethinking before the theory can be made fully applicable to this genre.

It is also possible to argue that to assign a skopos to a literary text is to restrict its possibili ties of interpretation. In literary theory a distinction is often made between text as potential and text as realization, and skopos theory appears to see the text only as realization, and not as a potential which can be used in different situations with different addressees and having different functions. However, Vermeer (1989a: 181) argues that when a text is actually composed, this is done with an assumed function, or a restricted set of functions, in mind. Skopos theory does not deny that a text may be used in ways that had not been foreseen originally, only that a translatum is a text in its own right, with its own potential for use.

Skopos theory has helped to bring the target text into focus. As a text, a translation is not primarily determined by a source text, but by its own skopos. This axiom provides a theoretical argument for describing translations in terms of original text production and against describing them in the more traditional terms of EQUIV ALENCE with another text in another language (see also Jakobsen 1993:156). Translation is a DECISION MAKING process. The criteria for the decisions are provided by the skopos, i.e. the concrete purpose and aims in a concrete translation commission.

The shift of focus away from source text reproduction to the more independent challenges of target-text production has brought innovation to translation theory. As attention has turned towards the functional aspects of translation and towards the explanation of translation decisions, the expertise and ethical responsibility of the translator have come to the fore. Translators have come to be viewed as target-text authors and have been released from the limitations and restrictions imposed by a narrowly defined concept of loyalty to the source text alone.

Further reading

Ammann 1989/1990; Newmark 1991b; Reiss 1986, 1988, 1990; Reiss and Vermeer 1984/ 1991; Vermeer 1978, 1982, 1989a, 1992.

CHRISTINA SCHÄFFNER

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翻译目的论汇总

第五讲翻译目的论简介 即就是Skopos theory skopos是希腊语,意为“目的”。翻译目的论(skopos theory)是将skopos概念运用于翻译的理论,其核心概念是:翻译过程的最主要因素是整体翻译行为的目的。skopos这一术语通常用来指译文的目的。除了Skopos,弗米尔还使用了相关的“目标(aim)”、“目的(purpose)”、“意图(intention)”和“功能(function)”等词。为了避免概念混淆,诺德提议对意图和功能作基本的区分:“意图”是从发送者的角度定义的,而“功能”指文本功能,它是由接受者的期望、需求、已知知识和环境条件共同决定的。 在弗米尔的目的论框架中,决定翻译目的的最重要因素之一是受众——译文所意指的接受者,他们有自己的文化背景知识、对译文的期待以及交际需求。每一种翻译都指向一定的受众,因此翻译是在“目的语情景中为某种目的及目标受众而生产的语篇”。弗米尔认为原文只是为目标受众提供部分或全部信息的源泉。可见原文在目的论中的地位明显低于其在对等论中的地位。 一、翻译目的论的产生与发展 功能派翻译理论是20世纪70年代德国学者凯瑟林娜?赖斯(Kantharina Reiss)、汉斯?费米尔(HansVermeer)、贾斯塔?赫兹?曼塔利(Justa Holz Mantari)和克里斯蒂安?诺德(Christiane Nord)等提出的翻译理论。它的形成大体经历了四个阶段,其颇具里程碑意义的理论是赖斯的功能主义翻译批评理论(functional category of translation criticism),费米尔的目的论及其延伸理论(Skopos theorie and beyond),曼塔利的翻译行为理论(theory of translation action)和诺德的功能加忠诚理论(function plus loyalty)。 1. 凯瑟林娜?赖斯(Kantharina Reiss)的翻译标准的功能分类说(the Functional Category of Translation Criticism) 1971年凯瑟林娜?赖斯在《翻译批评的可能性与限制》(Possibilities and

浅谈功能翻译理论

浅谈功能翻译理论 摘要:功能翻译理论对汉蒙翻译工作具有较高的普适性。因此,为了进一步 提升翻译工作质量,为相关工作者提供一定的参考借鉴,本文首先详细介绍了功 能翻译理论的主要内容,再阐述功能翻译理论的实际应用,进一步探究了功能翻 译理论的创新和局限性。 关键词:功能;翻译;理论 引言:功能翻译语言学的一些理论成果得益于语言交际理论、行为理论、话 语语言学、话语理论分析技术等一系列语言翻译问题研究和方法活动而带来的重 要学术成果,这些功能语言理论研究活动与结果往往都更加趋向于可接受语言理论。证明我们的翻译工作已从过去偏重主导研究学科地位的语言学范式的研究方 法向更强调语言形式特征和语言文化功能对等的语言翻译观理论范式研究方法过渡。于是,我们的翻译工作更强调和注重语用功能和语言学社会文化因素。 一、功能翻译理论的形成过程和主要理论 功能翻译理论是以“目的论”(skopos theory)为核心,强调问题和翻译 功能的一种流派,它出现于二十世纪六、七十年代,以1971年莱斯的《翻译批 评的可能性与限制》一书的出版为标志。其中,费米尔的“目的论”是其主导理论。由弗米尔所创立出来的翻译目的论已完全摆脱了以翻译源语法为理论中心的 对等语言理论模式的种种束缚,认为翻译起源问题也不能简单地靠语言学研究来 去解决。翻译活动不是一对一的语言转换活动,因为将翻译过程发生时的生活环 境置于有一定历史背景的世界文化框架中,不同时代的社会文化中有着不同时期 的传统习俗观念和主流价值观。在弗米尔后,霍斯曼塔里进一步研究发展成了功 能性翻译过程理论。她认为用语言信息的传递行为来实现指代文本、图片、声音、肢体语言动作等的各种语言跨文化功能的功能转换,将文本翻译功能视为是一种 用来实现一个特定功能目的过程的一系列复杂社会活动。她研究的行为理论主要 强调三个理论方面:翻译活动过程中参与者的社会行为,参与者自身的翻译角色

功能翻译理论目的论

方梦之主编:《译学词典》,上海外语教育出版社,第29页 功能翻译理论functionalist translation theory 又称“功能目的论”(Skopos theory)。1971年,德国的莱斯(K. Reiss)首先提出“把翻译行为所要达到的特殊目的”作为翻译评价的新模式。1984年她在与费米尔(H. J. Vermeer)合写的General Foundation of Translation Theory一书中声称:译者在整个翻译过程中的参照系不应是“对等”翻译理论所注重的原文及其功能,而应是译文在译语文化环境中所预期达到的一种或若钟交际功能。20世纪90年代初,德国学者克利斯蒂安·诺德(Christiane Nord)进一步拓展了译文功能理论。她强调译文与原文的联系,但这种联系的质量与数量由译文的预期功能确定。这就是说,根据译文语境,原文中的哪些内容或成分可以保留,哪些需调整或改写,该由译文的预期功能确定。 功能目的理论的两项基本原则是:1. 翻译各方面的交互作用受翻译目的所决定;2. 目的随接受对象的不同而变化。按照这两项原则,译者可以为了达到目的而采用任何他自己认为适当的翻译策略。换句话说,目的决定方式(The end justifies the means)。 作为受文化制约的语言符号,原文语篇和译文语篇受到各自交际环境的影响,译文功能与原文功能可相似或保持一致,也可能完全不同。根据不同的语境因素和预期功能,选择最佳的处理方法,这是功能翻译理论比以对等为基础的翻译理论或极端功能主义的翻译理论更为优越之处。翻译功能理论指导下的翻译方法表现出较大的灵活性,较高的科学性和易操作性。Toury 把“功能目的论”看作是“译

The Skopos theory

The Skopos theory is an approach to translation which was put forward by Hans Vemeer and developed in Germany in the late 1970s and which oriented a more functionally and socioculturally concept of translation. Translation is considered not as a process of translation, but as a specific form of human action. In our mind, translation has a purpose, and the word “Skopos” was from Greek. It’s used as the technical term for the purpose of the translation 翻译目的论(Skopos Theory)是一种崭新的翻译理论模式。是德国功能派翻译学家Reiss、Vermeer和Nord等从翻译行为的目的性出发提出的一种翻译理论。它的建立可以追溯二十世纪六七十年代,该理论将研究聚集在翻译过程中的各种目的的选择上。具体说来,它包括三个原则:目的原则(Skopos rule),连贯原则(Coherence rule),忠实原则(Fidality rule)。其中核心原则为目的原则“:任何翻译行为都是由翻译的目的决定的,简而言之,就是…翻译的目的决定翻译的手段?。”这个目的可以理解为:译者的目的,译文的交际目的以及使用某种翻译手段所要达到的目的。 由于言语交际是一种有目的的活动,它传递说话人的意图,因此要确定话语意义,就必需充分考虑说话人的意图,交际场合,听话人的背景知识,态度等语境因素。就翻译而言,这是种三元关系,即原作者--译者--译文读者。在翻译过程中,译者既要通过原文语境推断原作意图和意义,与原作者达成认知上的共识而构成交际的一方,又要通过译文将自己认知的原作意图及其相关信息传递给译文读者而形成交际的另一方,从而完成这种“三元关系”间的跨文化语言交流。该理论认为:只要能达到翻译的目的,对原文既可以采用逐字直译的方法,也可以采用完全改写的方法,或者采用介于两者之间的任何翻译策略。由此可见,翻译目的论的核心是:翻译方法和翻译策略由译文的预期目的或功能决定。翻译目的论是对结构主义等值翻译观的突破,提出了翻译的本质不仅是纯语言方面的转换,而是建立在语言形式上的不同文化的交流,从而拓宽了翻译理论研究的领域。 本文以德国功能派的核心翻译理论——目的沦为视角,重点考察菜单翻译中的实用性方面。本研究选取《中文菜单英文译法》作为语料,依据纽马克对于文本功能的分类,结合语料的特点,从信息与使役两种功能出发对这些菜名进行分析。目的论是德国功能派的核心理论,由德国翻译家弗米尔提出。目的论以“目的决定手段”为基础,认为翻译是一种有目的的行为。在实践中,翻译的目的体现在文本预定功能的实现上。通过对《中文菜单英文译法》中菜名的预定功能,即信息功能和使役功能,进行分析,本文得出结论——作为菜名翻译的一种解读视角,目的论是可行的。并在此基础上归纳出语料中菜名翻译中所使用的翻译技巧与策略,进而为菜单翻译或类似的应用型文本翻译提供启示。此外,通过上述翻译技巧与策略的使用,《中文菜单英文译法》中的菜名在翻译过程中文化方面并没有得到突显。文章得出之所以使用这些翻译技巧与策略其原因在于:一方面,由于《中文菜单英文译法》的目标读者、预期使用时间及地点,使得翻译过程中菜单的信息功能得到强化,同时使役功能也发生变化;另一方面,由于奥运会所具有的特殊功能,即

目的论

简介 即就是skopostheory Skopos是希腊语,意为“目的”。翻译目的论(skopostheorie)是将Skopos概念运用于翻译的理论,其核心概念是:翻译过程的最主要因素是整体翻译行为的目的。Skopos这一术语通常用来指译文的目的。除了Skopos,弗米尔还使用了相关的“目标(aim)”、“目的(purpose)”、“意图(intention)”和“功能(function)”等词。为了避免概念混淆,诺德提议对意图和功能作基本的区分:“意图”是从发送者的角度定义的,而“功能”指文本功能,它是由接受者的期望、需求、已知知识和环境条件共同决定的。 在弗米尔的目的论框架中,决定翻译目的的最重要因素之一是受众——译文所意指的接受者,他们有自己的文化背景知识、对译文的期待以及交际需求。每一种翻译都指向一定的受众,因此翻译是在“目的语情景中为某种目的及目标受众而生产的语篇”。弗米尔认为原文只是为目标受众提供部分或全部信息的源泉。可见原文在目的论中的地位明显低于其在对等论中的地位。 产生与发展 20世纪70年代,功能派翻译理论兴起于德国。其发展经过了以下几个阶段。 第一阶段: 凯瑟琳娜·莱斯首次把功能范畴引入翻译批评,将语言功能,语篇类型和翻译策略相联系,发展了以源文与译文功能关系为基础的翻译批评模式,从而提出了功能派理论思想的雏形。莱斯认为理想的翻译应该是综合性交际翻译,即在概念性内容,语言形式和交际功能方面都与原文对等,但在实践中应该优先考虑的是译本的功能特征。 第二阶段: 汉斯·弗米尔(Vermeer)提出了目的论,将翻译研究从原文中心论的束缚中摆脱出来。该理论认为翻译是以原文为基础的有目的和有结果的行为,这一行为必须经过协商来完成;翻译必须遵循一系列法则,其中目的法则居于首位。也就是说,译文取决于翻译的目的。此外,翻译还须遵循“语内连贯法则”和“语际连贯法则”。前者指译文必须内部连贯,在译文接受者看来是可理解的,后者指译文与原文之间也应该有连贯性。这三条原则提出后,评判翻译的标准不再是“对等”,而是译本实现预期目标的充分性。弗米尔还提出了翻译委任的概念,即应该由译者来决定是否,何时,怎样完成翻译任务。也就是说,译者应该根据不同的翻译目的采用相应的翻译策略,而且有权根据翻译目的决定原文的哪些内容可以保留,哪些需要调整或修改。 费米尔认为,翻译中的最高法则应该是“目的法则”。也就是说,翻译的目的不同,翻译时所采取的策略、方法也不同。换言之,翻译的目的决定了翻译的策略和方法。对于中西翻译史上的归化、异化之争,乃至近二三十年译界广泛讨论的形式对等与动态对等,“目的论”都做出了很好的解释。翻译中到底是采取归化还是异化,都取决于翻译的目的。由于功能翻译理论就是以“目的原则”为最高准则,而任何翻译活动都是有目的的行为,片名翻译的最终目标和主要功能是帮助人们了解影片的主要内容,并激发观众的观看欲望。因此我们需要对功能翻译理论尤其是“目的论”流派做简单了解。 第三阶段: 贾斯塔·霍茨—曼塔里借鉴交际和行为理论,提出翻译行为理论,进一步发展了功能派翻译理论该理论将翻译视作受目的驱使的,以翻译结果为导向的人与人之间的相互作用。该理论和目的论有颇多共同之处,弗米尔后来也将二者融合。 第四阶段: 克里斯汀娜·诺德全面总结和完善功能派理论。克里斯汀娜·诺德首次用英语系统阐述了翻译中的文本分析所需考虑的内外因素,以及如何在原文功能的基础上制定切合翻译目的的翻译策略。克里斯汀娜·诺德对功能派各学说进行了梳理,并且提出译者应该遵循“功能加忠诚”的指导原则,从而完善了该理论。

功能翻译理论

功能翻译理论 功能对等翻译理论是,奈达理论的核心概念是“功能对等”。所谓“功能对等”,就是说翻译时不求文字表面的死板对应,而要在两种语言间达成功能上对等。 功能翻译论翻译出来的译本是有一定功能的;翻译目的论根据翻译目的来确定译文。译文的翻译策略、语言风格等,需要根据目的来确定。 相关内容: 1、第一,努力创造出既符合原文语义又体现原文文化特色的译作。然而两种语言代表着两种完全不同的文化,文化可能有类似的因素,但不可能完全相同。因此,完全展现原文文化内涵的完美的翻译作品是不可能存在的,译者只能最大限度地再现源语文化。

2、第二,如果意义和文化不能同时兼顾,译者只有舍弃形式对等,通过在译文中改变原文的形式达到再现原文语义和文化的目的。 3、第三,如果形式的改变仍然不足以表达原文的语义和文化,可以采用“重创”这一翻译技巧来解决文化差异,使源语和目的语达到意义上的对等。 功能翻译理论是何时产生的? 功能翻译理论是以目的论(skopos theory)为核心,强调问题和翻译功能的一种流派。 它的出现反映了翻译的全面转向:从原来站主导地位的语言学流派的注重形式的翻译观转向更加注重功能和社会文化因素的翻译观。这种转向得益于交际理论、行为理论、话语语言学、语篇学说以及文学研究中趋向于接受理论的一系列研究活动。 功能翻译理论的形成大体经历了两个阶段。第一个阶段是以卡瑟琳娜·莱斯(Katharina Reiss) 在1971年出版的《翻译批评的可能性与限制》一书为标志。第二个阶段是赖斯的学生汉斯·弗米尔(Hans Vermeer)创立的功能翻译理论的核心理论。

扩展资料 产生背景 20世纪六七十年代,德国译学界深受结构主义语言学的影响,形成了以扭伯特卡德为代表的莱比锡学派和以威尔斯为代表的萨尔派。前者立足于转换生成语法,在翻译中严格区分不变的认知因素和可变的认知因素;后者是奈达学说的追随者,主张建立翻译科学。 “对等”成为了翻译研究的中心,各种借鉴语言学理论的翻译对等论应运而生,但大都不过是对等形式的重新组合。这种语言学科学研究愈演愈烈,后来致使翻译沦为了语言学的附属品,极大地束缚了这一学科的发展,同时理论和实践的严重脱节也令越来越多的译者感到了不满,功能派翻译理论就是这时兴起并逐步深化。 功能翻译论和翻译目的论的区别:

Skopos Theory

Skopos Theory (2012-11-30 22:29:56) 1.(translation studies) The idea that translating and interpreting should primarily take into account the function of both the source and target text. 2. o1995, Paul Kussmaul, Training The Translator, John Benjamins Publishing Co, p. 149: 2.The functional approach has a great affinity with Skopos theory. The function of a translation is dependent on the knowledge, expectations, values and norms of the target readers, who are again influenced by the situation they are in and by the culture. These factors determine whether the function of the source text or passages in the source text can be preserved or have to be modified or even changed. Introduction to the Skopos Theory The Skopos theory is an approach to translation which was put forward by Hans Vemeer and developed in Germany in the late 1970s and which oriented a more functionally and socioculturally concept of translation. Translation is considered not as a process of translation, but as a specific form of human action. In our mind, translation has a purpose, and the word “Skopos” was from Greek. It’s used as the technical term for the purpose of the translation. 翻译目的论,"skopos"是希腊语“目的”的意思。其核心概念是翻译过 程的最主要因素是整体翻译行为的目的。

功能翻译理论

功能翻译理论 一、产生背景 20世纪六七十年代,德国译学界深受结构主义语言学的影响,形成了以扭伯特(A.Neubert)卡德(O.Kade)为代表的莱比锡学派(the Leipzig School)和以威尔斯(W.Wilss)为代表的萨尔派(the Saarbrucken School)。前者立足于转换生成语法,在翻译中严格区分不变的认知因素和可变的认知因素;后者是奈达学说的追随者,主张建立翻译科学。“对等”成为了翻译研究的中心,各种借鉴语言学理论的翻译对等论应运而生,但大都不过是对等形式的重新组合。这种语言学科学研究愈演愈烈,后来致使翻译沦为了语言学的附属品,极大地束缚了这一学科的发展,同时理论和实践的严重脱节也令越来越多的译者感到了不满,功能派翻译理论就是这时兴起并逐步深化。它针对翻译学研学派中的薄弱环节,广泛借鉴交际理论,行动理论,信息论,语篇语言学,美学思想,将研究视线从源语文本转向目标与文本,成为当代德国译学界影响最大,最活跃的学派。 二、概述 功能翻译理论起源于上世纪70年代的德国,它是以目的论(skopos theory)为核心,强调问题和翻译功能的一种流派。他的出现反映了翻译的全面转向:从原来站主导地位的语言学流派的注重形式的翻译观转向更加注重功能和社会文化因素的翻译观。这种转向得益于交际理论、行为理论、话语语言学、语篇学说以及文学研究中趋向于接受理论的一系列研究活动。 功能翻译理论的形成大体经历了两个阶段。第一个阶段是以卡瑟琳娜·莱斯(Katharina Reiss) 在1971年出版的《翻译批评的可能性与限制》一书为标志的,书中提出了功能翻译理论的雏形。第二个阶段是赖斯的学生汉斯·弗米尔(Hans Vermeer)创立的功能翻译理论的核心理论:翻译的目的论。第三个阶段,在弗米尔的“目的论”的基础上贾斯塔·霍茨·曼塔利(Justa Holz Manttari)进一步发展了功能翻译理论,提出了翻译行为论。而克里斯蒂安·诺德(Christiane Nord)作为德国功能翻译理论的集大成者和主要倡导者之一,在诸多德国功能派学者中首次用英文全面系统地整理归纳了功能派各种学术思想,用简单易懂的语言和丰富的实例阐述了功能派复杂的学术理论和术语。针对翻译理

功能主义翻译目的论探究功能主义翻译目的论探究

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