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The Importance of Literature

1.Definition of literature

The word “literature” dates back to 14th century

In connection with ideas

Characteristic or essential features

Poetry, novels, history, (1) , and essays

Gets better with (2)

2.(3) of literature

A.Individual benefits from reading literature

Expand vocabulary

Educate on international issues and cultures

Improve (4) and self-discipline

Be more creative


B. Refusal to read literature

Less willing to (6) for entertainment

Spoiled by TV


3. Historical and cultural benefits of literature

A. Historical benefit: appreciate history in a (8) way

Themes of everyday life remain the same

Readers of novels written years ago feel (9) to the past

B.Cultural benefit: insights into the ways of life, political and moral views

Example: different versions of Cinderella

Different elements denote different pervasive (10)



Questions 1 to 3 are based on the following conversation.

1. A.To get some details of the conference events.

B.To inquire about the transport to the conference.

C.To get advice on how to organize the conference.

D.To inquire about the woman’s e-mail address.

2. A.He knows the exact number of airport buses.

B.He knows the exact number of delegates’ spouse.

C.He doesn’t know the exact number of delegates yet..

D.He doesn’t know the number of guest speakers.

3. A. The arrival time of guest speakers. B. The departure time of guest speakers.

C. The type of transport for guest speakers.

D. The number of guest speakers.

4. A. One. B. Two. C. Three. D. Not mentioned.

5. A. Pan-Pacific Tours. B. Johnson & Sons Events.

C. Conference delegates.

D. An airline company.


6. A.Police office. B. Bus station. C.Stationary shop. D.Bank.

7. A.Her car was brokens. B.She lost her briefcase.

C.Her laptop wasn’t in her car.

D.She forgot to carry her wallet.

8. A. Her cheque book. B. Her papers for work. C. Her laptop. D. Her appointment book.

9. A. At the police station. B. At a meeting. C. In her client's office. D. In the restaurant.

10. A. The papers inside had the company's name. B. The briefcase was found in the restaurant.

C. The restaurant manager telephoned James.

D. The cheque book inside bore her name. PART III LANGUAGE KNOWLEDGE (10 MIN)

11. Which of the following italicized phrases indicates CAUSE?

A. Why don't you do it for the sake of your friends?

B. I wish I could write as well as you.

C. For all his efforts, he didn't get an A.

D. Her eyes were red from excessive reading.

12. Nancy's gone to work but her car's still there. She ____ by bus.

A. must have gone

B. should have gone

C. ought to have gone

D. could have gone

13. He feels that he is not yet ____ to travel abroad.

A. too strong

B. enough strong

C. so strong

D. strong enough

14. After____ seemed an endless wait, it was his turn to enter the personnel manager's office.

A. that

B. it

C. what

D. there

15. Fool ____ Jerry is, he could not have done such a thing.

A. who

B. as

C. like

D. that

16. Which of the following sentences is INCORRECT?

A. They each have two tickets.

B. They cost twenty yuan each.

C. Each they have bought the same book.

D. They were given two magazines each.

17. She seldom goes to the theatre, _____?

A. doesn't she

B. does she

C. would she

D. wouldn't she

18. Dr Johnson is head of the department, ____ an expert in translation.

A. or

B. either

C. but

D. and

19. When one has good health, _____ should feel fortunate.

A. you

B. they

C. he

D. we

20. It is necessary that he ____ the assignment without delay.

A. hand in

B. hands in

C. must hand in

D. has to hand in

21. Due to personality _____, the two colleagues never got on well in work.

A. contradiction

B. conflict

C. confrontation

D. competition

22. During the summer vacation, kids are often seen hanging _____ in the streets.

A. about

B. on

C. over

D. out

23. There were 150 ____ at the international conference this summer.

A. spectators

B. viewers

C. participants

D. onlookers

24. School started on a ____ cold day in February.

A. severe

B. bitter

C. such

D. frozen

25. The team has been working overtime on the research project ____.

A. lately

B. just now

C. late

D. long ago

26. Because of the economic crisis, industrial output in the region remained

A. motionless

B. inactive

C. stagnant

D. immobile

27. The police had difficulty in ____ the fans from rushing on to the stage to take photos with the singer. A. limiting B. restraining C. confining D. restricting

28. Joan is in the dorm, putting the final ____ to her speech.

A. details

B. remarks

C. comments

D. touches

29. His_____ in gambling has eventually brought about his ruin.

A. indulgence

B. habit

C. action

D. engagement

30. The teacher told the students to stay in the classroom and they did _____.

A. absolutely

B. accidentally

C. accordingly

D. accurately


list of our main fears: natural resources are 31 out? the population is ever growing, leaving less and less to eat? species are becoming 32 in vast numbers, and the planet's air and water are becoming ever more polluted.

But a quick look at the facts shows a different picture. First, energy and other natural resources have become more 33 not less so, since the book 'The Limits to Growth' was published in 1972 by a group of scientists. Second, more food is now produced per 34 of the world's population than at any time in history. Fewer people are 35 . Third, although species are indeed becoming extinct, only about 0.7% of them are expected to disappear in the next 50 years, not 25~50%, as has so often been 36 . And finally, most forms of environmental pollution either appear to have been 37 , or are transient - associated with the early stages of industrialization and therefore best cured not by restricting economic growth, but by 38 it. One form of pollution - the release of greenhouse gases that causes global warming - does appear to be a phenomenon that is going to extend well into our future, but its total impact is unlikely to 39 a devastating (令人心神不安的) problem. A bigger problem may well turn out to be an inappropriate response to it.

Yet opinion polls suggest that many people nurture the belief that environmental standards are declining and some factors seem to cause this disjunction between 40 and reality.




What is the nature of the scientific attitude, the attitude of the man or woman who studies and applies physics, biology, chemistry, geology, engineering, medicine or any other science? We all know that science plays an important role in the societies in which we live. Many people believe, however, that our progress depends on two different aspects of science. The first of these is the application of the machines, products and systems of applied knowledge that scientists and technologists develop. Through technology, science improves the structure of society and helps man to gain increasing control over his environment.

The second aspect is the application by all members of society of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work.

What are these special methods of thinking and acting? First of all, it seems that a successful scientist is full of curiosity - he wants to find out how and why the universe works. He usually directs his attention towards problems which he notices have no satisfactory explanation,

and his curiosity makes him look for underlying relationships even if the data available seem to be unconnected. Moreover, he thinks he can improve the existing conditions and enjoys trying to solve the problems which this involves.

He is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective and applies logical thought to the observations he makes. He utilizes the facts he observes to the fullest extent. For example, trained observers obtain a very large amount of information about a star mainly from the accurate analysis of the simple lines that appear in a spectrum.

He is skeptical - he does not accept statements which are not based on the most complete evidence available - and therefore rejects authority as the sole basis for truth. Scientists always check statements and make experiments carefully and objectively to verify them.

Furthermore, he is not only critical of the work of others, but also of his own, since he knows that man is the least reliable of scientific instruments and that a number of factors tend to disturb objective investigation.

Lastly, he is highly imaginative since he often has to look for relationships in data which are not only complex but also frequently incomplete. Furthermore, he needs imagination if he wants to make hypotheses of how processes work and how events take place.

These seem to be some of the ways in which a successful scientist or technologist thinks and acts.

41. Many people believe that science helps society to progress through

A. applied knowledge.

B. more than one aspect.

C. technology only.

D. the use of machines.

42. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT about curiosity?

A. It gives the scientist confidence and pleasure in work.

B. It gives rise to interest in problems that are unexplained.

C. It leads to efforts to investigate potential connections.

D. It encourages the scientist to look for new ways of acting.

43. According to the passage, a successful scientist would not

A. easily believe in unchecked statements.

B. easily criticize others' research work.

C. always use his imagination in work.

D. always use evidence from observation.


Over the past several decades, the U.S., Canada, and Europe have received a great deal of media and even research attention over unusual phenomena and unsolved mysteries. These include UFOs as well as sightings and encounters with "nonhuman creatures" such as Bigfoot and the Loch Ness monster. Only recently has Latin America begun to receive some attention as well. Although the mysteries of the Aztec, Mayan, and Inca civilizations have been known for centuries, now the public is also becoming aware of unusual, paranormal phenomena in countries such as Peru.

The Nazca "lines" of Peru were discovered in the 1930s. These lines are deeply carved into a flat, stony plain, and form about 300 intricate pictures of animals such as birds, a monkey, and a lizard. Seen at ground level, the designs are a jumbled senseless mess. The images are so large that they can only be viewed at a height of 1,000 feet - meaning from an aircraft. Yet there were no aircraft in 300 B.C., when it is judged the designs were made. Nor were there then, or are there

now, any nearby mountain ranges from which to view them. So how and why did the native people of Nazca create these marvelous designs? One answer appeared in 1969, when the German researcher and writer Erich von Daniken proposed that the lines were drawn by extraterrestrials as runways for their aircraft. The scientific community did not take long to scoffat and abandon von Daniken's theory. Over the years several other theories have been put forth, but none has been accepted by the scientific community.

Today there is a new and heightened interest in the Nazca lines. It is a direct result of the creation of the Internet. Currently there are over 60 sites dedicated to this mystery from Latin America's past, and even respected scientists have joined the discussion through e-mail and chat rooms.

Will the Internet help explain these unsolved mysteries? Perhaps it is a step in the right direction.

44. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?

A. Latin America has long received attention for unusual phenomena.

B. Public attention is now directed towards countries like Peru.

C. Public interest usually focuses on North America and Europe.

D. Some ancient civilizations have unsolved mysteries.

45. According to the passage, the Nazca lines were found

A. in mountains.

B. in stones.

C. on animals.

D. on a plain.

46. We can infer from the passage that the higher the lines are seen, the ____ the images they present. A. smaller B. larger C. clearer D. brighter


Graduation speeches are a bit like wedding toasts. A few are memorable. The rest tend to trigger such thoughts as, "Why did I wear such uncomfortable shoes?"

But graduation speeches are less about the message than the messenger. Every year a few colleges and universities in the US attract attention because they've managed to book high-profile speakers. And, every year, the media report some of these speakers' wise remarks.

Last month, the following words of wisdom were spread:

"You really haven't completed the circle of success unless you can help somebody else move forward." (Oprah Winfrey, Duke University).

"There is no way to stop change; change will come. Go out and give us a future worthy of the world we all wish to create together." (Hillary Clinton, New York University).

"'This really is your moment. History is yours to bend." (Joe Biden, Wake Forest University).

Of course, the real "get" of the graduation season was first lady Michelle Obama's appearance at the University of California, Merced. "Remember that you are blessed," she told the class of 2009, "Remember that in exchange for those blessings, you must give something back... As advocate and activist Marian Wright Edelman says, 'Service is the rent we pay for living ... it is the true measure, the only measure of success'."

Calls to service have a long, rich tradition in these speeches. However, it is possible for a graduation speech to go beyond cliche and say something truly compelling. The late writer David Foster Wallace's 2005 graduation speech at Kenyon College in Ohio talked about how to truly care about other people. It gained something of a cult after it was widely circulated on the Internet. Apple Computer CEO Steve Jobs' address at Stanford University that year, in which he talked about death, is also considered one of the best in recent memory.

But when you're sitting in the hot sun, fidgety and freaked out, do you really want to be lectured about the big stuff?. Isn't that like trying to maintain a smile at your wedding reception while some relative gives a toast that amounts to "marriage is hard work"? You know he's right; you just don't want to think about it at that particular moment. In fact, as is the case in many major life moments, you can't really manage to think beyond the blisters your new shoes are causing.

That may seem anticlimactic. But it also gets to the heart of one of life's greatest, saddest truths: that our most "memorable" occasions may elicit the fewest memories. It's probably not something most graduation speakers would say, but it's one of the first lessons of growing up.

47. According to the passage, most graduation speeches tend to recall ____ memories.

A. great

B. trivial

C. unforgettable

D. unimaginative

48. "But graduation speeches are less about the message than the messenger" is explained

A. in the final paragraph.

B. in the last but one paragraph.

C. in the first paragraph.

D. in the same paragraph.


Cultural rules determine every aspect of food consumption. Who eats together defines social units. For example, in some societies, the nuclear family is the unit that regularly eats together. The anthropologist Mary Douglas has pointed out that, for the English, the kind of meal and the kind of food that is served relate to the kinds of social links between people who are eating together. She distinguishes between regular meals, Sunday meals when relatives may come, and cocktail parties for acquaintances. The food served symbolizes the occasion and reflects who is present. For example, only snacks are served at a cocktail party. It would be inappropriate to serve a steak or hamburgers. The distinctions among cocktails, regular meals, and special dinners mark the social boundaries between those guests who are invited for drinks, those who are invited to dinner, and those who come to a family meal. In this example, the type of food symbolizes the category of guest and with whom it is eaten.

In some New Guinea societies, the nuclear family is not the unit that eats together. The men take their meals in a men's house, separately from their wives and children. Women prepare and eat their food in their own houses and take the husband's portion to the men's house. The women eat with their children in their own houses. This pattern is also widespread among Near Eastern societies.

Eating is a metaphor that is sometimes used to signify marriage. In many New Guinea societies, like that of the Lesu on the island of New Ireland in the Pacific and that of the Trobriand Islanders, marriage is symbolized by the couple's eating together for the first time. Eating symbolizes their new status as a married couple. In U.S. society, it is just the reverse. A couple may go out to dinner on a first date.

Other cultural rules have to do with taboos against eating certain things. In some societies, members of a clan, a type of kin (family) group, are not allowed to eat the animal or bird that is their totemic ancestor. Since they believe themselves to be descended from that ancestor, it would be like eating that ancestor or eating themselves.

There is also an association between food prohibitions and rank, which is found in its most extreme form in the caste system of India. A caste system consists of ranked groups, each with a different economic specialization. In India, there is an association between caste and the idea of pollution. Members of highly ranked groups can be polluted by coming into contact with the bodily secretions, particularly saliva, of individuals of lower-ranked castes. Because of the fear of

pollution, Brahmans and other high-ranked individuals will not share food with, not eat from the same plate as, not even accept food from an individual from a low-ranking caste.

49. According to the passage, who will NOT eat together?

A. The English.

B. Americans on their first date.

C. Men and women in Near Eastern societies.

D. Newly-weds on the island of New Ireland.

50. According to the passage, eating together indicates all the following EXCEPT

A. the type of food.

B. social relations.

C. marital status.

D. family ties.



51. What does the passage mainly discuss?


52. Why is there an increasing interest in the Nazca lines?


53. What is the theme of Steve Job’s graduation speech at Stanford University?

54. What is “one of the first lessons of growing up”?


55. According to the last paragraph, what factor decided how people in India eat?


It was recently reported in a newspaper that six students who shared a dorm at a local university hired a cleaner to do laundry and cleaning once a week. And each of them paid her 60 yuan a month. This has led to a heated debate as to whether college students should hire cleaners. The following are the supporters’ and opponents’ opinions. Read carefully the opinions from both sides and write your response in about 200 words, in which you should first summarize briefly the opinions from both sides and give your view on the issue.

Marks will be awarded for content relevance, content sufficiency, organization, language